viernes, 5 de abril de 2013

NASA: Ice on the Caspian Sea - 05.04.13

Ice on the Caspian Sea
acquired March 7, 2013 download large image (7 MB, JPEG, 5560x6892)
Ice on the Caspian Sea
Color bar for Ice on the Caspian Sea
  download large image (332 KB, JPEG, 1500x1860)
The Caspian Sea isn’t really a sea but in fact a giant lake that spans roughly 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) from north to south. In the winter, ice often forms over the lake’s northernmost reaches, while the central and southern parts remain ice free. Temperatures are generally lower in the north, so you might guess that the ice owes its existence purely to the higher latitude. But the reality is more complex: From north to south, the Caspian Sea also exhibits differences in salinity and depth.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured a natural-color image of ice on the northern Caspian Sea on March 7, 2013 (top). The map (bottom) shows the bathymetry, or depth, of the northernmost part of the sea. Darker shades of blue indicate greater depth.
The differences in depth in the Caspian Sea are stark. Most of the northern part of the sea has a depth of 10 meters (30 feet) or less. Roughly west of Poluostrov Mangyshlak (the Mangyshlak Peninsula, or Tüpqaraghan Tübegi), depth begins to increase. In the southern part of the Capsian Sea, depth is measured in hundreds of meters, with some areas exceeding 1,000 meters (3,000 feet).
The Caspian Sea also shows varying levels of salinity. Overall, it is about one-third as salty as the ocean. The water is saltiest in the south and freshest in the north. Roughly 130 rivers feed the giant lake, and nearly all of them enter from the north or west. The biggest is the Volga, which enters the Caspian Sea from the northwest, bringing a generous supply of fresh water.
Fresh water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit), but since the Caspian is brackish, temperatures must fall below that for salt water to freeze. For every five parts per thousand salt content (salinity), the freezing point drops by 0.28 degrees Celsius (0.5 degrees Fahrenheit).
A lower freezing point is not the only impediment to the freezing of salt water. Salty water behaves differently than fresh water, hampering the formation of an ice layer at the surface.
Ice floats because liquid water is denser than ice. But liquid water is not uniform in its density. Fresh water is densest at 4° Celsius (39° Fahrenheit), several degrees above its freezing. As it cools below 4°C, it starts to rise toward the surface. If a layer of ice has already formed at the lake surface, this cooling and rising water can easily freeze onto the bottom of that ice.
Salt water, in contrast, typically reaches its maximum density closer to its freezing point. Because salt water usually sinks just before it is about to freeze (rather than rising), more of the water column must cool down before salty water can form an ice layer.
In the shallower part of the Caspian basin, water more readily cools throughout the water column than in the deeper parts. So the shallower northern section facilitates freezing.
  1. References

  2. GRID-Arendal Caspian Sea Salinity. Accessed March 28, 2013.
  3. International Institute for Caspian Studies Caspian Sea. Accessed March 28, 2013.
  4. National Snow and Ice Data Center Salinity and Brine. Accessed March 28, 2013.
NASA Earth Observatory images by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using data from the Level 1 and Atmospheres Active Distribution System (LAADS), and ocean bathymetry data from the British Oceanographic Data Center’s Global Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans GEBCO_08 Grid, Version 20100927. Caption by Michon Scott, with information from Walt Meier, National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Instrument: 
Terra - MODIS
 
 
 NASA: Ice on the Caspian Sea - 05.04.13
 
 

Music: Mina - Venus - Proteggimi - Senza di te - Lyrics




video

Mina Mazzini - Venus 
Mina 50's

( I dalton )
sincro by cassiopea
e' strano
quel che provo lo so
la colpa e' solo di lei
la vedo sempre nei sogni
e' venus ma perche'
sognare
la devo sognare
e la mia venus
lei sa amare con calore
la mia venus
lei sa amare con calore.
Io sogno sogno sempre ma
ma chi lo puo' dire a me
che con i sogni non si puo'
stare un po' vicino a lei
sognare
la devo sognare
e la mia venus
lei sa amare con calore
la mia venus
lei sa amare con calore
a....a....a....a....a....a....a
a....a....a....a....a....a....a
sognare
la devo sognare
e la mia venus
lei sa amare con calore
la mia venus
lei sa amare con calore



video

 Proteggimi - Mina 50's

Proteggimi
difendi questo amore
quest'anima che vuole
amare, gioire
sognare con te.
In te nascondimi
ch'io viva nel tuo cuore
il sogno mio divino
l'eterna illusione
la vita con te.
Con un tuo bacio dimmi ancor
il mondo ti darò vita mia
e fra le braccia in un sospir
ripetimi ogni dì
non voglio che te.
Proteggimi
difendi questo amore
quest'anima che vuole
amare, gioire
sognare con te
sempre con te.
Proteggimi
difendi questo amore
quest'anima che vuole
amare, gioire
sognare con te
sempre con te
sempre con te



video

Tu senza di me - Mina 50's 


Music: Mina - Venus - Proteggimi - Senza di te - Lyrics

 

Animals - Animales: Arab horses - Caballos arabes - Part 9 - Links












Animals - Animales: Arab horses - Caballos arabes - Part 9 - Links






See also - Vea también





Poesia: Luis de Gongora y Argote (1561-1627) - Hermana Marica - Ilustre y hermosísima María... - La Aurora. de azahares coronada... - Link

Gongora por Velázquez



Hermana Marica

Hermana Marica,
mañana, que es fiesta,
no irás tú a la amiga
ni yo iré a la escuela.

Pondráste el corpiño
y la saya buena,
cabezón labrado,
toca y albanega,

y a mí me pondrán
mi camisa nueva,
sayo de palmilla,
media de estameña;

y si hace bueno
trairé la montera
que medio la Pascua
mi señora abuela,

y el estandal rojo
con lo que le cuelga,
que trajo el vecino
cuando fue a la feria.

Iremos a misa,
veremos la iglesia,
darános un cuarto
mi tía la ollera.

Compraremos de él
(que nadie lo sepa)
chochos y garbanzos
para la merienda;

y en la tardecica,
en nuestra plazuela,
jugaré yo al toro
y tú a las muñecas

con las dos hermanas
Juana y Madalena
y las dos primillas
Marica y la tuerta;

y si quiere madre
dar las castañetas,
podrás tanto d'ello
bailar en la puerta;

y al son del adufe
cantará Andrehuela
"No me aprovecharon,
madre, las hierbas";

y yo de papel
haré una librea,
teñida con moras
porque bien parezca,

y una caperuza
con muchas almenas;
pondré por penacho
las dos plumas negras

del rabo del gallo,
que acullá en la huerta
anaranjeamos
las Carnestolendas;

y en la caña larga
pondré una bandera
con dos borlas blancas
en sus trazanderas;

y en mi caballito
pondré una cabeza
de guadamecí,
dos hilos por riendas,

y entraré en la calle
haciendo corvetas.
Yo y otros del barrio
que son más de treinta

jugaremos cañas
junto a la plazuela,
porque Barbolilla
salga acá y nos vea:

Bárbola, la hija
de la panadera,
la que suele darme
tortas con manteca,

porque algunas veces
hacemos yo y ella
las bellaquerías
detrás de la puerta.




Ilustre y hermosísima María...

Ilustre y hermosísima María,
mientras se dejan ver a cualquier hora
en tus mejillas la rosada Aurora,
Febo en tus ojos y en tu frente el día,
y mientras con gentil descortesía
mueve el viento la hebra voladora
que la Arabia en sus venas atesora
y el rico Tajo en sus arenas cría;
antes que, de la edad Febo eclipsado
y el claro día vuelto en noche obscura,
huya la Aurora del mortal nublado;
antes que lo que hoy es rubio tesoro
venza a la blanca nieve su blancura:
goza, goza el color, la luz, el oro.




La Aurora, de azahares coronada...

La Aurora, de azahares coronada,
sus lágrimas partió con vuestra bota,
ni de las peregrinaciones rota,
ni de los conductores esquilmada.
De sus risueños ojos desatada,
fragrante perla cada breve gota,
por seráfica abeja fue, devota,
a bota peregrina trasladada.
Uvas os debe Clío, mas ceciales;
mínimas en el hábito, mas pasas,
a pesar del perífrasis absurdo.
Las manos de Alejandro hacéis escasas,
segunda la capilla del de Ales,
Izquierdo Esteban, sí, no Esteban zurdo.



Poesia: Luis de Gongora y Argote (1561-1627) - Hermana Marica - Ilustre y hermosísima María... - La Aurora. de azahares coronada... - Links