viernes, 9 de agosto de 2013

NASA: Subtleties of Color (Part 2 of 6) by Robert Simmon - The “Perfect” Palette - 08.08.13






Subtleties of Color (Part 2 of 6)

August 6th, 2013 by Robert Simmon
 
 
The “Perfect” Palette

Despite the near-ubiquity of the rainbow palette—which distorts patterns in the underlying data—the basics of using color to represent numerical data are well-established.
1823 map depicting temperature zones in color. This 1823 map by W. C. Woodbridge is an early example of the use of colors to represent numbers—in this case more qualitative than quantitative. The rainbow palette is effective for this map because colors in the spectrum are perceived as “cool” and “warm,” and the colors clearly segment the climate zones. Map from the Historic Maps Collection, Princeton University Library.
By the mid-1960s cartographers had already established guidelines for the appropriate use of color in map-making. Jacques Bertin pointed out shortcomings of the rainbow palette in Sémiologie Graphique (The Semiology of Graphics), and Eduard Imhof was crafting harmonious color gradients for use in topographic maps [published in Kartographische Geländedarsellung (Cartographic Relief Presentation)].
Topographic and bathymetric map of Crater Lake, Oregon. The subtle colors in this bathymetric map of Crater Lake are a direct descendent of the palettes created by Eduard Imhof. Map courtesy National Park Service Harper’s Ferry Center.
In the 1980s and 1990s researchers in perception and visualization were investigating the efficacy of palettes, based on the ways our brains and eyes physically respond to light. These color scales were crafted to achieve the principal goals of spatial displays: to show patterns and relationships in data, and to allow a viewer to accurately read individual values. [Colin Ware (1988) Color Sequences for Univariate Maps: Theory, Experiments, and Principles; Brewer (1994) Color Use Guidelines for Mapping and Visualization; Rogowitz and Treinish (1995) How NOT to Lie with Visualization; Tufte (1997) Visual Explanations; Spence et al. (1999) Using Color to Code Quantity in Spatial Displays.]
According to much of this research, a color scale should vary consistently across the entire range of values, so that each step is equivalent, regardless of its position on the scale. In other words, the difference between 1 and 2 should be perceived the same as the difference between 11 and 12, or 101 and 102, preserving patterns and relationships in the data. (For data with a wide range that is better displayed logarithmically, relative proportions should be maintained: the perceived difference between 1 and 10 should be the same as 1,000 and 10,000.) Consistent relationships between numbers—like in a grayscale palette—preserves the form of the data. Palettes with abrupt or uneven shifts can exaggerate contrast in some areas, and hide it others.
Rainbow and grayscale palettes. Compared to a monochromatic or grayscale palette the rainbow palette (IDL number 35) tends to accentuate contrast in the bright cyan and yellow regions, but blends together through a wide range of greens.
A palette should also minimize errors from the color shifts introduced by nearby areas of differing color or lightness, a phenomenon known as simultaneous contrast.
Demonstration of simultaneous contrast. Simultaneous contrast (a visual phenomenon that helps us interpret shapes through variations in brightness) shifts the appearance of colors and shades based on their surroundings. (After Ware (1988).)
Simultaneous contrast is most pronounced in monochromatic palettes, while sharp variations in hue minimize the effect. As a result variations of the rainbow palette are good for preserving exact quantities.
How to take advantage of the strengths of both the grayscale palette (preservation of form) and rainbow palette (preservation of quantity), while minimizing their weaknesses? Combine a linear, proportional change in lightness with a simultaneous change in hue and saturation. Colin Ware describes this type of palette as “a kind of spiral in color space that cycles through a variety of hues while continuously increasing in lightness” (Information Visualization: Perception for Design, Second Edition). The continuous, smooth increase in lightness preserves patterns, the shift in hue aids reading of exact quantities, and the change in saturation enhances contrast.
Three sequential palettes. A color palette that combines a continuous increase in lightness with a shift in hue is a good compromise that preserves both form and quantity. These three palettes show the smooth, even gradations that result from color scales calculated in perceptual color spaces. Color scales with varied hues and contrast are suitable for representing different datasets. (After Spence et al. (1999), chroma.js, and Color Brewer.)
Of the three components of color—hue, saturation, and lightness—lightness is the strongest. As a result, accurate, one-way changes in lightness are more important than those in hue or saturation. For example, a color scale that goes from black to color to white can still be read accurately, even though the saturation is lower at both ends of the scale than in the middle. This allows a bit of flexibility in designing palettes, especially for datasets that benefit from high-contrast color ramps. You also don’t need to worry too much about color scales that drift a little bit out of gamut (the complete range of colors displayed on a particular device) for a portion of the ramp. Just make sure lightness is still changing smoothly.
A variation on the perfect palette that goes from 100 percent black  to 100 percent white. This palette differs from the ideal with saturation that increases from low-to-mid values, and decreases from mid-to-high values. It’s still readable because lightness, the component of color perceived most strongly, changes continuously. (Derived with the NASA Ames color tool).
All of these palettes are appropriate for sequential data. Data that varies continuously from a high to low value; such as temperature, elevation, or income. Different palettes are suited to other types of data, such as divergent and qualitative, which I’ll discuss next week.
Subtleties of Color Part 1: Introduction
(This series on the use of color in data visualization is being cross-posted on visual.ly. Thanks to Drew Skau at visual.ly for the invitation.)













NASA: Subtleties of Color (Part 2 of 6) by Robert Simmon - The “Perfect” Palette - 08.08.13


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Poesia - Poesie: Blaise Cendrars - Rio de Janeiro - Aube - Amanecer - Links











Rio de Janeiro

Une lumière éclatant inonde l'atmosphère
Une lumière si colorée et si fluide que les objets qu'elle touche
Les rochers roses
Le phare blanc qui les surmonte
Les signaux du sémaphore me semblent liquéfiés
Et voici maintenant que je sais le nom des montagnes qui entourent cette baie merveilleuse
Le Géant couché
La Gavéa
Le bico de Papagaio
Le Corcovado
Le pain de Sucre que les compagnons de Jean de Lévy appelaient le Pot de Beurre
Et les aiguilles étranges de la chaîne des Orgues
Bonjour Vous


Río de Janeiro

Una luz resplandeciente inunda la atmósfera
Una luz coloreada y fluida como los objetos que ella toca
Las rocas rosas
El faro blanco que las supera
Las señales de semáforo que parecen licuarse
Y he aquí que ahora yo conozco los nombres
De estas montañas
Que rodean esta bahía maravillosa
El Gigante acostado
La Gaveá
El Bico de Papagayo
El Corcovado
El Pan de Azúcar que los compañeros de Jean de Léry
Llaman el Tarro de Mantequilla
Y las cumbres insólitas de la cadena de Organos
Buenos días a ustedes

Versión de Damaris Calderón

Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961)





Aube

A l'aube je suis descendu au fond des machines.
J'ai écouté pour une dernière fois la respiration profonde des pistons.
Appuyé à la fragile main-courante de nickel j'ai senti pour une dernière fois cette sourde vibration des arbres de couche pénétrer en moi avec le relent des huiles surchauffées et la tiédeur de la vapeur.
Nous avons encore bu un verre, le chef-mécanicien cet homme tranquille et triste qui a un si beau sourire d'enfant et qui ne cause jamais, et moi.
Comme je sortais de chez lui le soleil sortait tout naturellement de la mer et chauffait déjà dur.
Le ciel mauve n'avait pas un nuage.
Et comme nous pointions sur Santos notre sillage décrivait un grand arc de cercle miroitant sur la mer immobile.


Amanecer

Bajé al amanecer a la sala de máquinas
Oí una última vez el hondo respirar de los pistones
Apoyado en la frágil barandilla de níquel sentí una última vez la sorda vibración de los motores penetrar en mí con el olor del aceite sobrecalentado y la tibieza del vapor
Nos tomamos un trago con el jefe de mecánicos hombre tranquilo y taciturno que tiene una sonrisa de niño y que jamás discute y yo
Mientras salía de su camarote el sol salió con naturalidad del mar y quemaba ya mucho
El cielo color malva no tenía ni una nube
Y mientras enfilábamos con rumbo a Santos nuestra estela describía un gran arco de círculo que refulgía sobre el mar inmóvil

Versión de Ezequiel Zaidenwerg

Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961)






Links



par Amedeo Modigliani













Poesia - Poesie: Blaise Cendrars - Rio de Janeiro - Aube - Amanecer - Links


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My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)


Painter: Rembrandt. Harmenszoon van Rijn. 1606-1669. Part 15 - 13 photos - Links to Precedent Parts







Rembrandt - Portrait of a Young Woman with the Fan


Rembrandt - Portrait of Agatha Bas, Wife of Nicolas van Bambeeck


Rembrandt - Portrait of an Old Man (The Rabbi)


Rembrandt - Portrait of an Old Man


Rembrandt - Portrait of an Old Woman


 Rembrandt - Portrait of Baartjen Martens


Rembrandt - Portrait of Hendrickje at Window


Rembrandt - Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels


Rembrandt - Portrait of Jan Six


Rembrandt - Portrait of Maria Trip


Rembrandt - Portrait of Nicolaes Ruts [1631]


Rembrandt - Portrait of Rembrandt's Brother, Andrien van Rijn


Rembrandt - Portrait of Rembrandt's Brother, Andrien van Rijn





Links
























Painter: Rembrandt. Harmenszoon van Rijn. 1606-1669. Part 15 - 13 photos - Links to Precedent Parts


Ricardo M Marcenaro - Facebook
 
Blogs of The Solitary Dog:

solitary dog sculptor:
http://byricardomarcenaro.blogspot.com
Solitary Dog Sculptor I:
http://byricardomarcenaroi.blogspot.com

Para:
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enviar materiales para publicar,
propuestas:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com
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My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)


Poetry: Charles Bukowski - An Almost Made Up Poem - The Genius Of The Crowd - Links









An Almost Made Up Poem
I see you drinking at a fountain with tiny
blue hands, no, your hands are not tiny
they are small, and the fountain is in France
where you wrote me that last letter and
I answered and never heard from you again.
you used to write insane poems about
ANGELS AND GOD, all in upper case, and you
knew famous artists and most of them
were your lovers, and I wrote back, it’ all right,
go ahead, enter their lives, I’ not jealous
because we’ never met. we got close once in
New Orleans, one half block, but never met, never
touched. so you went with the famous and wrote
about the famous, and, of course, what you found out
is that the famous are worried about
their fame –– not the beautiful young girl in bed
with them, who gives them that, and then awakens
in the morning to write upper case poems about
ANGELS AND GOD. we know God is dead, they’ told
us, but listening to you I wasn’ sure. maybe
it was the upper case. you were one of the
best female poets and I told the publishers,
editors, “ her, print her, she’ mad but she’
magic. there’ no lie in her fire.” I loved you
like a man loves a woman he never touches, only
writes to, keeps little photographs of. I would have
loved you more if I had sat in a small room rolling a
cigarette and listened to you piss in the bathroom,
but that didn’ happen. your letters got sadder.
your lovers betrayed you. kid, I wrote back, all
lovers betray. it didn’ help. you said
you had a crying bench and it was by a bridge and
the bridge was over a river and you sat on the crying
bench every night and wept for the lovers who had
hurt and forgotten you. I wrote back but never
heard again. a friend wrote me of your suicide
3 or 4 months after it happened. if I had met you
I would probably have been unfair to you or you
to me. it was best like this.



The Genius Of The Crowd
there is enough treachery, hatred violence absurdity in the average
human being to supply any given army on any given day

and the best at murder are those who preach against it
and the best at hate are those who preach love
and the best at war finally are those who preach peace

those who preach god, need god
those who preach peace do not have peace
those who preach peace do not have love

beware the preachers
beware the knowers
beware those who are always reading books
beware those who either detest poverty
or are proud of it
beware those quick to praise
for they need praise in return
beware those who are quick to censor
they are afraid of what they do not know
beware those who seek constant crowds for
they are nothing alone
beware the average man the average woman
beware their love, their love is average
seeks average

but there is genius in their hatred
there is enough genius in their hatred to kill you
to kill anybody
not wanting solitude
not understanding solitude
they will attempt to destroy anything
that differs from their own
not being able to create art
they will not understand art
they will consider their failure as creators
only as a failure of the world
not being able to love fully
they will believe your love incomplete
and then they will hate you
and their hatred will be perfect

like a shining diamond
like a knife
like a mountain
like a tiger
like hemlock

their finest art 













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Poetry: Charles Bukowski - An Almost Made Up Poem - The Genius Of The Crowd - Links


Ricardo M Marcenaro - Facebook
 
Blogs of The Solitary Dog:

solitary dog sculptor:
http://byricardomarcenaro.blogspot.com
Solitary Dog Sculptor I:
http://byricardomarcenaroi.blogspot.com

Para:
comunicarse conmigo,
enviar materiales para publicar,
propuestas:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com
For:
contact me,
submit materials for publication,
proposals:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com

My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)


Music: Gary Moore - As The Years Go Passing By - Lyrics






video

Gary Moore - As The Years Go Passing By
There is nothing I can do,
as you leave me here to cry.
There is nothing I can do,
as you leave me here to cry.
You know my love will follow you,
as the years go passing by.

Give you all that I own.
That's one thing you can't deny.
Give you all that I own.
That's one thing you can't deny.
You know my love will follow you,
as the years go passing by.

Gonna leave it up to you.
So long, so long, goodbye.
Gonna leave it up to you.
So long, so long, goodbye.
You know my love will follow you,
as the years go passing by.

Gonna leave it up to you.
So long, so long, goodbye.
Gonna leave it up to you.
So long, so long, goodbye.
You know my love will follow you,
as the years go passing by.
   
Fuente: musica.com








Music: Gary Moore - As The Years Go Passing By - Lyrics









You have an alphabetical guide in the foot of the page in the blog: solitary dog sculptor
In the blog: Solitary Dog Sculptor I, the alphabetical guide is on the right side of the page
Thanks

Usted tiene una guía alfabética al pie de la página en el blog: solitary dog sculptor
En el blog: Solitary Dog Sculptor I, la guia alfabética está en el costado derecho de la página
Gracias


Ricardo M Marcenaro - Facebook

Blogs in operation of The Solitary Dog:
solitary dog sculptor:
http://byricardomarcenaro.blogspot.com
Solitary Dog Sculptor I:
http://byricardomarcenaroi.blogspot.com

Para:
comunicarse conmigo,
enviar materiales para publicar,
propuestas comerciales:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com
For:
contact me,
submit materials for publication,
commercial proposals:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com


My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)