sábado, 28 de septiembre de 2013

NASA: North Pole - 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum - 09.28.13





2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum
acquired September 13, 2013
Color bar for 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum
After an unusually cool summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum extent on September 13, 2013. Analysis of satellite data by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) showed that sea ice extent shrunk to 5.10 million square kilometers (1.97 million square miles).
The extent of sea ice this September is substantially greater than last year’s record low. On September 16, 2012, Arctic sea ice spread across just 3.41 million square kilometers (1.32 million square miles)—the smallest extent ever recorded by satellites and about half the average minimum from 1981 to 2010.
Though less Arctic sea ice melted in 2013 compared to 2012, this year’s total is the sixth lowest in the satellite record. This year continues a long-term downward trend of about 12 percent Arctic sea ice loss per decade since the late 1970s—a decline that accelerated after 2007.
“I was expecting that this year would be higher than last year,” said Walt Meier, a glaciologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “There is always a tendency to have an uptick after an extreme low. In our satellite data, the Arctic sea ice has never set record low minimums in consecutive years.”
The map above shows the extent of Arctic sea ice on September 13, 2013. Extent is defined as the total area in which the ice concentration is at least 15 percent. The map was compiled from observations by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR-2) sensor on the Global Change Observation Mission 1st–Water (“Shizuku”) satellite, which is operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The yellow outline on the map shows the median sea ice extent observed in September from 1981 through 2010.
acquired 1978 - 2013
Although the extent of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice is higher this September than it was in 2012, it does not indicate “global cooling” or a recovery of the Arctic sea ice. As shown in the plot above, the extent of Arctic sea ice has decreased in every season of the year since 1979. This cycle plot shows the mean sea ice extent separately for each season from 1979 to 2013. For example, the first panel shows Arctic ice during winter (December, January, and February) for the years 1978–79 to 2012–13. The second panel shows average ice extent for spring (March, April, and May); the third shows summer (June, July, and August); and the fourth shows autumn (September, October, November).
In summer 2013 (June, July, August), the average extent was 8.71 million square kilometers, compared to 7.85 million in 2012 (the record low for the summer months), and 10.40 million in 1979, the first full year of satellite measurements. These sea ice data are archived and distributed by NSIDC.
The ice cap covering the Arctic Ocean shrinks and expands with the seasons. It grows dramatically each winter, usually reaching its maximum in March. It melts just as dramatically each summer, generally reaching its minimum in September. The plot below shows this annual cycle, including the long term trends and the past two years.
acquired 1981 - 2013
This year, cooler weather in the spring and summer led to a late start for the melt season and less melting overall. The colder temperatures, which ranged from 1 to 3 degrees Celsius (1.8 to 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit) lower than average, according to a combined analysis of observations and a modeled forecast called Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The cooler summer was due in part to a series of cyclones and weather systems that brought in clouds and prevented sunlight from heating up the ice and water.
The Arctic sea ice cover today is much thinner on average than it was years ago. Satellite imagery, submarine sonar measurements, and data collected from NASA’s Operation IceBridge indicate that the sea ice thickness is as much as 50 percent thinner than in previous decades, going from an average thickness of 3.8 meters (12.5 feet) in 1980 to 1.9 meters (6.2 feet) in recent years. Older, thicker ice is being replaced by thinner, seasonal ice.
Most of the Arctic Ocean used to be covered by multiyear ice, or ice that has survived at least two summers and is typically 3 to 4 meters (10 to 13 feet) thick. This older ice has declined at an even faster rate than younger ice and is now largely relegated to a strip along the northern coast of Greenland. The rest of the Arctic Ocean is dominated by first year ice, or ice that formed over the previous winter and is only 1 to 2 meters (3 to 7 feet) thick.
“Thinner ice melts completely at a faster rate than thicker ice does, so if the average thickness of Arctic sea ice goes down, it’s more likely that the extent of the summer ice will go down as well,” said Joey Comiso, senior scientist at NASA Goddard and coordinating lead author of the Cryosphere Observations chapter of the upcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “At the rate we’re observing this decline, it’s very likely that the Arctic’s summer sea ice will completely disappear within this century.”
  1. Further Reading

  2. NASA Earth Observatory World of Change: Arctic Sea Ice.
  3. National Snow and Ice Data Center (2013, September 20) Arctic sea ice reaches lowest extent for 2013. Accessed September 20, 2013.
NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the Global Change Observation Mission 1st-Water (GCOM-W1) satellite. Sea ice line plot and cycle graph by Robert Simmon, NASA Earth Observatory, based on NSIDC data. Caption by Maria-José Viñas, NASA Earth Science News Team, and Mike Carlowicz, NASA Earth Observatory.
Instrument: 
GCOM-W1 - AMSR-2



NASA: North Pole - 2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum - 09.28.13




Ricardo M Marcenaro - Facebook

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My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)





Music: Fabrizio de Andre - Morire per delle idee - Sidùn (Tradotta) - Lyrics - Links to more FdA




Fabrizio De Andrè
 
video

Morire per delle idee - Fabrizio De Andrè


Morire per delle idee, l'idea è affascinante
per poco io morivo senza averla mai avuta,
perchè chi ce l'aveva, una folla di gente,
gridando "viva la morte" proprio addosso mi è caduta.

Mi avevano convinto e la mia musa insolente
abiurando i suoi errori, aderì alla loro fede
dicendomi peraltro in separata sede
moriamo per delle idee, va bè, ma di morte lenta, va bè
ma di morte lenta.

Approfittando di non essere fragilissimi di cuore
andiamo all'altro mondo bighellonando un poco
perchè forzando il passo succede che si muore
per delle idee che non han più corso il giorno dopo.

Ora se c'è una cosa amara, desolante
è quella di capire all'ultimo momento
che l'idea giusta era un'altra, un altro movimento
moriamo per delle idee, va bè, ma di morte lenta
ma di morte lenta.

Gli apostoli di turno che apprezzano il martirio
lo predicano spesso per novant'anni almeno.

Morire per delle idee sarà il caso di dirlo
è il loro scopo di vivere, non sanno farne a meno.

E sotto ogni bandiera li vediamo superare
il buon matusalemme nella longevità
per conto mio si dicono in tutta intimità
moriamo per delle idee, va bè, ma di morte lenta, va bè,
ma di morte lenta.

A chi va poi cercando verità meno fittizie
ogni tipo di setta offre moventi originali
e la scelta è imbarazzante per le vittime novizie
morire per delle idee è molto bello ma per quali.

E il vecchio che si porta già i fiori sulla tomba
vedendole venire dietro il grande stendardo
pensa "speriamo bene che arrivino in ritardo"
moriamo per delle idee, va bè, ma di morte lenta, va bè,
ma di morte lenta

E voi gli sputafuoco, e voi i nuovi santi
crepate pure per primi noi vi cediamo il passo
però per gentilezza lasciate vivere gli altri
la vita è grosso modo il loro unico lusso
tanto più che la carogna è già abbastanza attenta
non c'è nessun bisogno di reggerle la falce
basta con le garrote in nome della pace
moriamo per delle idee, va bè, ma di morte lenta,
ma di morte lenta.

http://www.angolotesti.it




video

Sidùn (Tradotta) - Fabrizio De Andrè

U mæ ninin u mæ
u mæ
lerfe grasse au su
d'amë d'amë

Il mio bambino il mio
il mio
labbra grasse al sole
di miele di miele

tûmù duçe benignu
de teu muaè
spremmûu 'nta maccaia
de stæ de stæ

tumore dolce benigno
di tua madre
spremuto nell'afa umida
dell'estate dell'estate

e oua grûmmu de sangue ouëge
e denti de laete
e i euggi di surdatti chen arraggë
cu'a scciûmma a a bucca cacciuéi de bæ

e ora grumo di sangue orecchie
e denti di latte
e gli occhi dei soldati cani arrabbiati
con la schiuma alla bocca cacciatori di agnelli

a scurrï a gente cumme selvaggin-a
finch'u sangue sarvaegu nu gh'à smurtau a qué
e doppu u feru in gua i feri d'ä prixún
e 'nte ferie a semensa velenusa d'ä depurtaziún

a inseguire la gente come selvaggina
finché il sangue selvatico non gli ha spento la voglia
e dopo il ferro in gola i ferri della prigione
e nelle ferite il seme velenoso della deportazione

perché de nostru da a cianûa a u meü
nu peua ciû cresce aerbu ni spica ni figgeü
ciao mæ 'nin l'ereditæ
l'è ascusa

perché di nostro dalla pianura al modo
non possa più crescere albero né spiga né figlio
ciao bambino mio l'eredità
è nascosta

'nte sta çittæ
ch'a brûxa ch'a brûxa
inta seia che chin-a
e in stu gran ciaeu de feugu
pe a teu morte piccin-a

in questa città
che brucia che brucia
nella sera che scende
e in questa grande luce di fuoco
per la tua piccola morte

http://lyrics.wikia.com

 


Links






Music: Fabrizio de Andre - Morire per delle idee - Sidùn (Tradotta) - Lyrics - Links to more FdA




Ricardo M Marcenaro - Facebook

Blogs in operation of The Solitary Dog:
Solitary Dog Sculptor:
http://byricardomarcenaro.blogspot.com
Solitary Dog Sculptor I:
http://byricardomarcenaroi.blogspot.com

Para:
comunicarse conmigo,
enviar materiales para publicar,
propuestas comerciales:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com
For:
contact me,
submit materials for publication,
commercial proposals:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com

Diario La Nación
Argentina
Cuenta Comentarista en el Foro:
Capiscum

My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)





Poesia: Cesar Vallejo - Poemas Humanos - Parte 23 - V Poemas Fechados... en letra negra - ¿Que me da... - Aniversario - Panteon - Links








¿Qué me da, que me azoto con la línea
y creo que me sigue, al trote, el punto?

¿Qué me da, que me he puesto
en los hombros un huevo en vez de un manto?

¿Qué me ha dado, que vivo?
¿Qué me ha dado, que muero?

¿Qué me da, que tengo ojos?
¿Qué me da, que tengo alma?

¿Qué me da, que se acaba en mí mi prójimo
y empieza en mi carrillo el rol del viento?

¿Qué me ha dado, que cuento mis dos lágrimas,
sollozo tierra y cuelgo el horizonte?

¿Qué me ha dado, que lloro de no poder llorar
y río de lo poco que he reído?

¿Qué me da, que ni vivo ni muero?

30Oct 1937



ANIVERSARIO

¡Cuánto catorce ha habido en la existencia!
¡Qué créditos con bruma, en una esquina!
¡Qué diamante sintético, el del casco!
¡Cuánta más dulcedumbre
a lo largo, más honda superficie:
¡cuánto catorce ha habido en tan poco uno!

¡Qué deber,
qué cortar y qué tajo,
de memoria a memoria, en la pestaña!
¡Cuanto más amarillo, más granate!
¡Cuánto catorce en un solo catorce!

Acordeón de la tarde, en esa esquina,
piano de la mañana, aquella tarde;
clarín de carne,
tambor de un solo palo,
guitarra sin cuarta ¡cuánta quinta,
y cuánta reunión de amigos tontos
y qué nido de tigres el tabaco!
¡Cuánto catorce ha habido en la existencia!

¡Qué te diré ahora,
quince feliz, ajeno, quince de otros?
Nada más que no crece ya el cabello,
que han venido por las cartas,
que me brillan los seres que he parido,
que no hay nadie en mi tumba
y que me han confundido con mi llanto.

¡Cuánto catorce ha habido en la existencia!

31 Oct 1937


PANTEÓN

He visto ayer sonidos generales,
           mortuoriamente,
           puntualmente alejarse,
cuando oí desprenderse del ocaso
    tristemente,
    exactamente un arco, un arcoíris.

Vi el tiempo generoso del minuto,
            infinitamente
atado locamente al tiempo grande,
pues que estaba la hora
            suavemente,
premiosamente henchida de dos horas.

Dejóse comprender, llamar, la tierra
             terrenalmente;
negóse brutalmente así a mi historia,
y si vi, que me escuchen, pues, en bloque,
si toqué esta mecánica, que vean
             lentamente,
despacio, vorazmente, mis tinieblas.

Y si vi en la lesión de la respuesta,
            claramente,
la lesión mentalmente de la incógnita,
si escuché, si pensé en mis ventanillas
nasales, funerales, temporales,
            fraternalmente,
piadosamente echadme a los filósofos.

Mas no más inflexión precipitada
en canto llano, y no más
el hueso colorado, el son del alma
               tristemente
erguida ecuestremente en mi espinazo,
ya que, en suma, la vida es
               implacablemente,
imparcialmente horrible, estoy seguro.

31 Oct 1937





Links:



Poesia: Cesar Vallejo - Poemas Humanos - Parte 23 - V Poemas Fechados... en letra negra - ¿Que me da... - Aniversario - Panteon - Links




Ricardo M Marcenaro - Facebook

Blogs in operation of The Solitary Dog:
Solitary Dog Sculptor:
http://byricardomarcenaro.blogspot.com
Solitary Dog Sculptor I:
http://byricardomarcenaroi.blogspot.com

Para:
comunicarse conmigo,
enviar materiales para publicar,
propuestas comerciales:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com
For:
contact me,
submit materials for publication,
commercial proposals:
marcenaroescultor@gmail.com

Diario La Nación
Argentina
Cuenta Comentarista en el Foro:
Capiscum

My blogs are an open house to all cultures, religions and countries. Be a follower if you like it, with this action you are building a new culture of tolerance, open mind and heart for peace, love and human respect.

Thanks :)

Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

Gracias :)