viernes, 23 de agosto de 2013

Music: Horatiu Radulescu - Clepsydra - 3 vids - Bio data - Links

Horatiu Radulescu - Clepsydra

Horațiu Rădulescu (Romanian pronunciation: [hoˈratsiu rəduˈlesku]; January 7, 1942 – September 25, 2008) was a Romanian-French composer, best known for the spectral technique of composition.


Rădulescu was born in Bucharest, where he studied the violin privately with Nina Alexandrescu, a pupil of Enescu, and later studied composition at the Bucharest Academy of Music (MA 1969), where his teachers included Stefan Niculescu, Tiberiu Olah and Aurel Stroë, some of the leading figures of the newly emerging avant garde (Toop 2001). Upon graduation in 1969 Rădulescu left Romania for the west, and settled in Paris, becoming a French citizen in 1974. He returned to Romania thereafter several times for visits, beginning in 1991 when he directed a performance of his Iubiri, the first public performance of any of his mature works in his native country. (Rădulescu nonetheless commented that in the interim he had dedicated many of his works to a "virtual and sublimated" Romania) (Rădulescu, cited in Krafft 2001, 47).

One of the first works to be completed in Paris (though the concept had come to him in Romania) was Credo for nine cellos, the first work to employ his spectral techniques. This technique "comprises variable distribution of the spectral energy, synthesis of the global sound sources, micro- and macro-form as sound-process, four simultaneous layers of perception and of speed, and spectral scordaturae, i.e. rows of unequal intervals corresponding to harmonic scales" (Rădulescu 1993). These techniques were developed considerably in his music of subsequent decades. In the early 1970s he attended classes given by Cage, Ligeti, Stockhausen, and Xenakis at the Darmstadt Summer Courses, and by Ferrari and Kagel in Cologne. He presented his own music in Messiaen's classes at the Paris Conservatoire in 1972-73; Rădulescu recalled that while Messiaen himself was sympathetic, later calling him "one of the most original young musicians of our time" (Rădulescu 199), some of the students were more reticent, not understanding his music's "colourful, dreamy, mystical" inclinations (Rădulescu cited in Krafft 2001, 48).

Beginning in the early 1970s Rădulescu's works began to be performed at the leading contemporary music festivals, including Gaudeamus (Taaroa, 1971; in ko 'tro - mioritic space, 1972), Darmstadt (Flood for the Eternal's Origins, 1972), Royan (fountains of my sky, 1973; Lamento di Gesù, 1975), Metz (Wild Incantesimo for nine orchestras, 1978; Byzantine Prayer, 1988) and Donaueschingen. From 1979 to 1981 he studied computer-assisted composition and psycho-acoustics at IRCAM, although his work makes relatively little use of electronic means of sound production. In 1983 he founded the ensemble European Lucero in Paris to perform own his works, a variable ensemble consisting of soloists specialising in the techniques required for his music. In 1991 he founded the Lucero Festival.

In the mid-1980s Rădulescu was based in Freiburg, Germany, though for many years he retained an address in Versailles. In 1988 he lived in Berlin on a DAAD fellowship, and in 1989-90 he was a resident in San Francisco and Venice as a laureate of the Villa Médici hors les murs scholarship. In the mid-1990s he moved to Switzerland, living first in Clarens and later in Vevey. He died in Paris on September 25, 2008.

Musical style and technique

From the very beginning, Rădulescu's musical concepts, and the techniques he invented to realise them, were unconventional. For his final exams in Bucharest he composed the orchestral work Taaroa, named after the Polynesian god; this displeased his teachers, who found the idea "mystical" and "imperialistic" (Rădulescu, quoted by Krafft 2001, 47); the only member of the faculty who supported him was the composer Anatol Vieru.

Rădulescu's spectral techniques, as they evolved through the 1970s and beyond, are quite distinct from those of his French contemporaries Gérard Grisey and Tristan Murail. His compositional aim, as outlined in his book Sound Plasma (1975; see Sources) was to bypass the historical categories of monody, polyphony and heterophony and to create musical textures with all elements in a constant flux. Central to this was an exploration of the harmonic spectrum, and by the invention of new playing techniques the aim to bringing out, and sometimes to isolate, the upper partials of complex sounds, on which new spectra could be built.

The harmonic relationships in his music are based on these spectra and on the phenomena of sum and difference tones. The opening sonority of his fourth string quartet (1976–87), for example, is based on partials 21, 22 and 43 of a low C fundamental; this is an example of what Rădulescu referred to as "self-generating functions"[citation needed] in his music, as partials 21 and 22 give in sum 43 and in difference 1, the fundamental. (On a C fundamental, partials 21, 22 and 43 are all different, microtonally distinct kinds of F, the 21st partial being 29 cents lower than tempered F, partial 22 being 51 cents higher and partial 43 12 cents higher.) Much of his music for strings makes use of a "spectral scordatura", where the open strings are retuned, often to simulations of the partials of a single harmonic spectrum. For example, in Lux Animae (1996/2000) for solo cello or viola, the open strings are retuned to the 3rd, 4th, 7th and 11th partials of a low E.

Many of Rădulescu's later works derive their poetic inspiration from the Tao Te Ching of Lao-tzu, especially in the 1988 English version by Stephen Mitchell: the titles of his second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth piano sonatas, and of the fifth and sixth string quartets, are taken from this source. The piano sonatas, as well as his Piano Concerto The Quest (1996) and other later works, make use of folk melodies from his native Romania, integrating them with his spectral techniques.

Selected works

    Taaroa (1969) for orchestra
    Credo for 9 celli (1969)
    Flood for the Eternal's Origins (1970) for global sound sources
    Everlasting Longings (1972) for 24 strings
    in ko 'tro - Mioritic Space (1973) for 11 recitors, string orchestra, electronic and nature sound
    Capricorn's nostalgic crickets (1972/1980) for seven identical woodwinds
    Hierophany (1973) recitation in 42 languages with 42 children
    Wild Incantesimo (1978) for 9 orchestras, 162 players
    Lamento di Gesù (1973–75) for large orchestra and 7 psalteries
    A Doini (1974) for 17 players with sound icons (bowed vertical concert grand pianos spectrally retuned)
    Thirteen Dreams Ago (1978) for 11x3 strings –11 live with two pre-recordings (or 33 strings live)
    Doruind (1976) for 48 voices in 7 groups
    Do Emerge Ultimate Silence (1974/84) for 34 children's voices in groups with 34 spectrally tuned monochords
    Fourth String Quartet – "infinite to be cannot be infinite, infinite anti-be could be infinite" (1976–87) for 9 string quartets, i.e. 8 (spectral scordatura of 128 strings) around the audience and one in the center
    Outer Time (1980) for 23 flutes or 42 gongs or trio basso or two spectrally retuned grand pianos or 8 brass - 4 trumpets and 4 trombones
    Inner Time (1983) for solo clarinet; Inner Time II (1993) for 7 clarinets
    Iubiri (Amours) (1980/1) for 16 players & sound icons (if live, another 3 players)
    Clepsydra (1983) for 16 players with sound icons
    Das Andere (1983) for viola sola or cello solo or violin solo or double bass solo tuned in perfect fifths
    Astray (1983/84) for two duos: each of one player with 6 saxes & of one player with a sound icon - score on color slides
    Awakening infinity (1983) for large ensemble of 25 players
    Frenetico il longing di amare (1984) for bass voice, octobass flute, sound icon
    Dizzy Divinity I (1985) for (bass, alto or grand) flute
    Sensual Sky (1985) for ensemble: fl in G, cl., alto sax, trombone, sound icon, violin, viola, cello, double bass
    Intimate Rituals (1985) for 4 sound icons with or without other soloists
    "forefeeling" remembrances (1985) for 14 identical voices
    Christe Eleison (1986) for organ
    Mirabilia Mundi - music for the Speyer Basilica (1986) for 7 large groups - up to 88 players
    Byzantine Prayer (1988) for 40 flautists with 72 flutes
    Dr. Kai Hong's Diamond Mountain (1991) for 61 spectral gongs and soloists
    Second Piano Sonata - "being and non-being create each other" (1991)
    Animae morte carent (1992/95) for oboe d'amore and spectral piano
    Third Piano Sonata - "you will endure forever" (1992/99)
    Angolo Divino (1993/94) for large orchestra
    Amen (1993/94) for organ
    Fifth String Quartet - "before the universe was born" (1990/95)
    Piano Concerto "The Quest" (1996)
    Sixth String Quartet "practicing eternity" (1992)
    Fourth Piano Sonata "like a well ... older than God"" (1993)
    Amor medicabilis nullis herbis (1996) for soprano, clarinet and violoncello
    lux animae for violoncello (1996) or viola (2000)
    l'exil interieur (1997) sonata for cello and piano
    Fifth Piano Sonata "settle your dust, this is the primal identity" (2003)
    Cinerum (2005) for four voices and ensemble with period instruments
    Sixth Piano Sonata "return to the source of light" (2007)


    Intimate Rituals. Sub Rosa, 2006. Contains Das Andere, Agnus Dei, Lux Animae II, Intimate Rituals XI. Vincent Royer, viola, with Gérard Caussé, Petra Junken and Horațiu Rădulescu.
    Lao tzu Sonatas. cpo, 2004. Contains Piano Sonatas nos. 2 (being and non-being create each other), 3 (you will endure forever), and 4 (like a well... older than God). Ortwin Stürmer, piano.
    Streichquartett nr.4 (infinite to be cannot be infinite, infinite anti-be could be infinite) opus 33. Edition RZ, 2001. Arditti Quartet.
    The Quest: Piano Concerto op.90. cpo, 1998. Ortwin Stürmer, piano, Radio-Sinfonie-Orchester Frankfurt conducted by Lothar Zagrosek.
    Sensual Sky op.62; Iubiri op.43. Adès, 1996. Ensemble Polychromie conducted by Nvart Andreassian.
    Inner Time II op.42. Auvidis, 1994. Armand Angster Clarinet System.
    Horațiu Rădulescu. Adda, 1993. Contains Dizzy Divinity I, Byzantine Prayer, Frenetico Il Longing di Amare, Capricorn's Nostalgic Crickets II. Pierre-Yves Artaud, flute, Orchestre Français de Flûtes conducted by Horațiu Rădulescu assisted by Pierre-Alain Biget.

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Horatiu Radulescu - Clepsydra

Music: Horatiu Radulescu - Clepsydra - 3 vids - Bio data - Links

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NASA: USA - Oklahoma to Tennessee - Unusual rains - 08.23.13

Unusual Rains from Oklahoma to Tennessee
acquired July 30 - August 12, 2013
Color bar for Unusual Rains from Oklahoma to Tennessee
Flash floods caused widespread damage from Oklahoma to Tennessee during the first two weeks of August. The floods caused at least two deaths and damaged hundreds of homes and other structures.
This image shows rainfall anomalies—how much precipitation was above or below the norm—over U.S. Midwest and Plains states between July 30 and August 12, 2013. Dark blue areas indicate rainfall as much as 16 millimeters (0.6 inches) per day more than the average for early August. The rainfall measurements come from the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, based on data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Rainfall estimates are made over a very wide area, so it is possible that local rainfall anomalies were higher.
The rain occurred as a result of a persistent weather pattern that stayed over the United States for the first half of August. A low-pressure system over Canada steered storms into the central Midwest and Gulf Coast states, triggering heavy rain. In the mountains and hills of Missouri and Tennessee, the rapidly falling rain caused deadly flash floods.
August’s heavy rain came after a soggy July in which many of the affected states also received more rain than average.
  1. References

  2. Associated Press, via USA Today (2013, August 9) More rain expected, floods possible in Central U.S. Accessed August 14, 2013.
  3. Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network (2013, August 8) Bulls eye on the Ozarks. Accessed August 14, 2013.
  4. NOAA National Climatic Data Center (2013, August) State of the Climate: National Overview for July 2013. Accessed August 14, 2013.
  5. The Weather Channel (2013, August 10) Deadly floods strike Central U.S. Accessed August 14, 2013.
NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using data from the TRMM Science Data and Information System at Goddard Space Flight Center. Caption by Holli Riebeek.

NASA: USA - Oklahoma to Tennessee - Unusual rains - 08.23.13

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Fossils - Fosiles: Dinosaur Teeth - Dientes de Dinosaurio - 10 fotos - Links to more fossils


Albertosaurus Dinosaur

Albertosaurus Dinosaur

Albertosaurus Dinosaur


Dromaeosauridae indet  

Dromaeosauridae indet  

Nanotyrannus lancensis Dinosaur Tooth

Nanotyrannus lancensis Dinosaur Tooth

Nanotyrannus skull replica


Crinoid - Crinoide

Fishes - Peces

Various - Varios

Fossil Teeth - Dientes Fósiles

Amber - Ámbar

Fossils - Fosiles: Dinosaur Teeth - Dientes de Dinosaurio - 10 fotos - Links to more fossils

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Mis blogs son una casa abierta a todas las culturas, religiones y países. Se un seguidor si quieres, con esta acción usted está construyendo una nueva cultura de la tolerancia, la mente y el corazón abiertos para la paz, el amor y el respeto humano.

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Poetry: Lord Byron - Childe Harold's Pilgrimage - Part 4 - Canto IV - Links to more Byron


                              To John Hobhouse, Esq., A.M., F.R.S., etc.

My dear Hobhouse, -- After an interval of eight years between the composition of the first and last cantos of Childe Harold, the conclusion of the poem is about to be submitted to the public.  In parting with so old a friend, it is not extraordinary that I should recur to one still older and better, -- to one who has beheld the birth and death of the other, and to whom I am far more indebted for the social advantages of an enlightened friendship, than -- though not ungrateful -- I can, or could be, to Childe Harold, for any public favour reflected through the poem on the poet, -- to one, whom I have known long, and accompanied far, whom I have found wakeful over my sickness and kind in my sorrow, glad in my prosperity and firm in my adversity, true in counsel and trusty in peril, -- to a friend often tried and never found wanting; -- to yourself.

In so doing, I recur from fiction to truth; and in dedicating to you, in its complete or at least concluded state, a poetical work which is the longest, the most thoughtful and comprehensive of my compositions, I wish to do honour to myself by the record of many years' intimacy with a man of learning, of talent, of steadiness, and of honour.  It is not for minds like ours to give or to receive flattery; yet the praises of sincerity have ever been permitted to the voice of friendship; and it is not for you, nor even for others, but to relieve a heart which has not elsewhere, or lately, been so much accustomed to the encounter of good-will as to withstand the shock firmly, that I thus attempt to commemorate your good qualities, or rather the advantages which I have derived from their exertion.  Even the recurrence of the date of this letter, the anniversary of the most unfortunate day of my past existence, but which cannot poison my future while I retain the resource of your friendship, and of my own faculties, will henceforth have a more agreeable recollection for both, inasmuch as it will remind us of this my attempt to thank you for an indefatigable regard, such as few men have experienced, and no one could experience without thinking better of his species and of himself.

It has been our fortune to traverse together, at various periods, the countries of chivalry, history, and fable -- Spain, Greece, Asia Minor, and Italy; and what Athens and Constantinople were to us a few years ago, Venice and Rome have been more recently.  The poem also, or the pilgrim, or both, have accompanied me from first to last; and perhaps it may be a pardonable vanity which induces me to reflect with complacency on a composition which in some degree connects me with the spot where it was produced, and the objects it would fain describe; and however unworthy it may be deemed of those magical and memorable abodes, however short it may fall of our distant conceptions and immediate impressions, yet as a mark of respect for what is venerable, and of feeling for what is glorious, it has been to me a source of pleasure in the production, and I part with it with a kind of regret, which I hardly suspected that events could have left me for imaginary objects.

With regard to the conduct of the last canto, there will be found less of the pilgrim than in any of the preceding, and that little slightly, if at all, separated from the author speaking in his own person.  The fact is, that I had become weary of drawing a line which every one seemed determined not to receive: like the Chinese in Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," whom nobody would believe to be a Chinese, it was in vain that I asserted, and imagined that I had drawn, a distinction between the author and the pilgrim; and the very anxiety to preserve this difference, and disappointment at finding it unavailing, so far crushed my efforts in the composition, that I determined to abandon it altogether -- and have done so.  The opinions which have been, or may be, formed on that subject, are /now/ a matter of indifference; the work is to depend on itself, and not on the writer; and the author, who has no resources in his own mind beyond the reputation, transient or permanent, which is to arise from his literary efforts, deserves the fate of authors.

In the course of the following canto it was my intention, either in the text or in the notes, to have touched upon the present state of Italian literature, and perhaps of manners.  But the text, within the limits I proposed, I soon found hardly sufficient for the labyrinth of external objects, and the consequent reflections; and for the whole of the notes, excepting a few of the shortest, I am indebted to yourself, and these were necessarily limited to the elucidation of the text.

It is also a delicate, and no very grateful task, to dissert upon the literature and manners of a nation so dissimilar; and requires an attention and impartiality which would induce us -- though perhaps no inattentive observers, nor ignorant of the language or customs of the people amongst whom we have recently abode -- to distrust, or at least defer our judgment, and more narrowly examine our information.  The state of literary, as well as political party, appears to run, or to /have/ run, so high, that for a stranger to steer impartially between them is next to impossible.  It may be enough, then, at least for my purpose, to quote from their own beautiful language -- "Mi pare che in un paese tutto poetico, che vanta la lingua la più nobile ed insieme la più dolce tutte tutte le vie diverse si possono tentare, e che sinche la patria di Alfieri e di Monti non ha perduto l'antico valore, in tutte essa dovrebbe essere la prima."  Italy has great names still -- Canova, Monti, Ugo Foscolo, Pindemonti, Visconti, Morelli, Cicognara, Albrizzi, Mezzophanti, Mai, Mustoxidi, Aglietti, and Vacca, will secure to the present generation an honourable place in most of the departments of art, science, and belles lettres; and in some the very highest:  Europe -- the World -- has but one Canova.

It has been somewhere said by Alfieri, that "La pianta uomo nasce più robusta in Italia che in qualungue altra terra -- e che gli stessi atroci delitti che [break in text] si commettono ne sono una prova."  Without subscribing to the latter part [of the pr?]oposition -- a dangerous doctrine, the truth of which may be disputed on better grounds, namely, that the Italians are in no respect more ferocious than their neighbours -- that man must be wilfully blind, or ignorantly heedless, who is not struck by the extraordinary capacity of this people, or, if such a word be admissible, their /capabilities,/ the facility of their acquisitions, the rapidity of their conceptions, the fire of their genius, their sense of beauty, and, amidst all the disadvantages of repeated revolutions, the desolation of battles, and the despair of ages, their still unquenched "longing after immortality," -- the immortality of independence.  And when we ourselves, in riding round the walls of Rome, heard the simple lament of the labourers' chorus, "Roma!  Roma!  Roma!  Roma non è più come era prima," it was difficult not to contrast this melancholy dirge with the bacchanal roar of the songs of exultation still yelled from the London taverns, over the carnage of Mont St Jean, and the betrayal of Genoa, of Italy, of France, and of the world, by men whose conduct you yourself have exposed in a work worthy of the better days of our history.  For me, --

    "Non movero mai corda
    Ove la turba di sue ciance assorda."

What Italy has gained by the late transfer of nations, it were useless for Englishmen to inquire, till it becomes ascertained that England has acquired something more than a permanent army and a suspended Habeas Corpus; it is enough for them to look at home.  For what they have done abroad, and especially in the south, "Verily they /will have/ their reward," and at no very distant period.

Wishing you, my dear Hobhouse, a safe and agreeable return to that country whose real welfare can be dearer to none than to yourself, I dedicate to you this poem in its completed state; and repeat once more how truly I am ever, your obliged and affectionate friend,


Venice, /Jan./ 2, 1818.



  I stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs;
  A palace and a prison on each hand:
  I saw from out the wave her structures rise
  As from the stroke of the enchanter's wand:
  A thousand years their cloudy wings expand
  Around me, and a dying Glory smiles
  O'er the far times when many a subject land
  Look'd to the wingèd Lion's marble piles,
Where Venice sate in state, throned on her hundred isles!


  She looks a sea Cybele, fresh from ocean,
  Rising with her tiara of proud towers
  At airy distance, with majestic motion,
  A ruler of the waters and their powers:
  And such she was; -- her daughters had their dowers
  From spoils of nation, and the exhaustless East
  Pour'd in her lap all gems in sparkling showers.
  In purple was she robed, and of her feast
Monarchs partook, and deem'd their dignity increased.


  In Venice Tasso's echoes are no more,
  And silent rows the songless gondolier;
  Her palaces are crumbling to the shore,
  And music meets not always now the ear:
  Those days are gone -- but Beauty still is here.
  States fall, arts fade -- but Nature doth not die,
  Nor yet forget how Venice once was dear,
  The pleasant place of all festivity,
The revel of the earth, the masque of Italy!


  But unto us she hath a spell beyond
  Her name in story, and her long array
  Of mighty shadows, whose dim forms despond
  Above the dogeless city's vanish'd sway;
  Ours is a trophy which will not decay
  With the Rialto; Shylock and the Moor,
  And Pierre, cannot be swept or worn away --
  The keystones of the arch! though all were o'er,
For us repeopled were the solitary shore.


  The beings of the mind are not of clay;
  Essentially immortal, they create
  And multiply in us a brighter ray
  And more beloved existence: that which Fate
  Prohibits to dull life, in this our state
  Of mortal bondage, by these spirits supplied,
  First exiles, then replaces what we hate;
  Watering the heart whose early flowers have died,
And with a fresher growth replenishing the void.


  Such is the refuge of our youth and age,
  The first from Hope, the last from Vacancy;
  And this worn feeling peoples many a page,
  And, may be, that which grows beneath mine eye:
  Yet there are things whose strong reality
  Outshines our fairy-land; in shape and hues
  More beautiful than our fantastic sky,
  And the strange constellations which the Muse
O'er her wild universe is skilful to diffuse.


  I saw or dream'd of such, -- but let them go, --
  They came like truth, and disappear'd like dreams;
  And whatsoe're they were -- are now but so;
  I could replace them if I would: still teems
  My mind with many a form which aptly seems
  Such as I sought for, and at moments found:
  Let these go too -- for waking Reason deems
  Such over-weening phantasies unsound,
And other voices speak, and other sights surround.


  I've taught me other tongues -- and in stranger eyes
  Have made me not a stranger; to the mind
  Which is itself, no changes bring surprise;
  Nor is it harsh to make, nor hard to find
  A country with -- ay, or without mankind;
  Yet was I born where men are proud to be,
  Not without cause; and should I leave behind
  The inviolate island of the sage and free,
And seek me out a home by a remoter sea,


  Perhaps I loved it well: and should I lay
  My ashes in a soil which is not mine,
  My spirit shall resume it -- if we may
  Unbodied choose a sanctuary.  I twine
  My hopes of being remember'd in my line
  With my land's language: if too fond and far
  These aspiration in their scope incline, --
  If my fame should be, as my fortunes are,
Of hasty growth and blight, and dull Oblivion bar


  My name from out the temple where the dead
  Are honour'd by the nations -- let it be --
  And light the laurels on a loftier head!
  And be the Spartan's epitaph on me --
  "Sparta hath many a worthier son than he."
  Meantime I seek no sympathies, nor need;
  The thorns which I have reap'd are of the tree
  I planted, -- they have torn me, -- and I bleed:
I should have known what fruit would spring from such a seed.


  The spouseless Adriatic mourns her lord;
  And, annual marriage now no more renew'd,
  The Bucentaur lies rotting unrestored,
  Neglected garment of her widowhood!
  St Mark yet sees his lion where he stood
  Stand, but in mockery of his wither'd power,
  Over the proud Place where an emperor sued,
  And monarchs gazed and envied in the hour
When Venice was a queen with an unequall'd dower.


  The Suabian sued, and now the Austrian reigns, --
  An Emperor tramples where an Emperor knelt;
  Kingdoms are shrunk to provinces, and chains
  Clank over sceptred cities; nations melt
  From Power's high pinnacle, when they have felt
  The sunshine for a while, and downward go
  Like lauwine loosen'd from a mountain's belt:
  Oh for one hour of blind old Dandolo!
Th' octogenarian chief, Byzantium's conquering foe.


  Before St Mark still glow his steeds of brass,
  Their gilded collars glittering in the sun;
  But is not Doria's menace come to pass?
  Are they not /bridled!/ -- Venice, lost and won,
  Her thirteen hundred years of freedom done,
  Sinks, like a sea-weed, into whence she rose!
  Better be whelm'd beneath the waves, and shun,
  Even in Destruction's depth, her foreign foes,
From whom submission wrings an infamous repose.


  In youth she was all glory, -- a new Tyre, --
  Her very byword sprung from victory,
  The "Planter of the Lion," which through fire
  And blood she bore o'er subject earth and sea;
  Though making many slaves, herself still free,
  And Europe's bulwark 'gainst the Ottomite;
  Witness Troy's rival, Candia!  Vouch it, ye
  Immortal waves that saw Lepanto's fight!
For ye are names no time nor tyranny can blight.


  Statues of glass -- all shiver'd -- the long file
  Of her dead Doges are declined to dust;
  But where they dwelt, the vast and sumptuous pile
  Bespeaks the pageant of their splendid trust;
  Their sceptre broken, and their sword in rust,
  Have yielded to the stranger: empty halls,
  Thin streets, and foreign aspects, such as must
  Too oft remind her who and what enthrals,
Have flung a desolate cloud o'er Venice' lovely walls.


  When Athens' armies fell at Syracuse,
  And fetter'd thousands bore the yoke of war,
  Redemption rose up in the Attic Muse,
  Her voice their only ransom from afar:
  See! as they chant the tragic hymn, the car
  Of the o'ermaster'd victor stops, the reins
  Fall from his hands -- his idle scimitar
  Starts from its belt -- he rends his captive's chains,
And bids him thank the bard for freedom and his strains.


  Thus, Venice, if no stronger claim were thine,
  Were all thy proud heroic deeds forgot,
  Thy choral memory of the Bard divine,
  Thy love of Tasso, should have cut the knot
  Which ties thee to thy tyrants; and thy lot
  Is shameful to the nations, -- most of all,
  Albion! to thee: the Ocean Queen should not
  Abandon Ocean's children; in the fall
Of Venice think of thine, despite thy watery wall.


  I loved her from my boyhood -- she to me
  Was as a fairy city of the heart,
  Rising like water-columns from the sea,
  Of joy the sojourn, and of wealth the mart;
  And Otway, Radcliffe, Schiller, Shakspeare's art,
  Had stamp'd her image in me, and even so,
  Although I found her thus, we did not part,
  Perchance even dearer in her day of woe,
Than when she was a boast, a marvel and a show


  I can repeople with the past -- and of
  The present there is still for eye and thought,
  And meditation chasten'd down, enough;
  And more, it may be, than I hoped or sought;
  And of the happiest moments which were wrought
  Within the web of my existence, some
  From thee, fair Venice! have their colours caught:
  There are some feelings Time can not benumb,
Nor Torture shake, or mine would now be cold and dumb.


  But from their nature will the tannen grow
  Loftiest on loftiest and least shelter'd rocks,
  Rooted in barrenness, where nought below
  Of soil supports them 'gainst the Alpine shocks
  Of eddying storms; yet springs the trunk, and mocks
  The howling tempest, till its height and frame
  Are worthy of the mountains from whose blocks
  Of bleak, gray granite, into life it came,
And grew a giant tree; -- the mind may grow the same.


  Existence may be borne, and the deep root
  Of life and sufferance make its firm abode
  In bare and desolated bosoms: mute
  The camel labours with the heaviest load,
  And the wolf dies in silence, -- not bestow'd
  In vain should such example be; if they,
  Things of ignoble or of savage mood,
  Endure and shrink not, we of nobler clay
May temper it to bear, -- it is but for a day.


  All suffering doth destroy, or is destroy'd,
  Even by the sufferer: and, in each event,
  Ends: -- Some, with hope replenish'd and rebuoy'd,
  Return to whence they came -- with like intent,
  And weave their web again; some, bow'd and bent
  Wax gray and ghastly, withering ere their time,
  And perish with the reed on which they leant;
  Some seek devotion, toil, war, good or crime,
According as their souls were form'd to sink or climb.


  But ever and anon of griefs subdued
  There comes a token like a scorpion's sting,
  Scarce seen, but with fresh bitterness imbued;
  And slight withal may be the things which bring
  Back on the heart the weight which it would fling
  Aside for ever: it may be a sound --
  A tone of music -- summer's eve -- or spring --
  A flower -- the wind -- the ocean -- which shall wound,
Striking the electric chain wherewith we are darkly bound;


  And how and why we know not, nor can trace
  Home to its cloud this lightning of the mind,
  But feel the shock renew'd, nor can efface
  The blight and blackening which it leaves behind,
  Which out of things familiar, undesign'd,
  When least we deem of such, calls up to view
  The spectres whom no exorcism can bind,
  The cold -- the changed -- perchance the dead -- anew,
The mourn'd, the loved, the lost -- too many! -- yet how few!


  But my souls wanders; I demand it back
  To meditate amongst decay, and stand
  A ruin amidst ruins; there to track
  Fallen states and buried greatness, o'er a land
  Which /was/ the mightiest in its old command,
  And /is/ the loveliest, and must ever be
  The master-mould of Nature's heavenly hand,
  Wherein were cast the heroic and the free,
The beautiful, the brave -- the lords of earth and sea,


  The commonwealth of kings, the men of Rome!
  And even since, and now, fair Italy!
  Thou art the garden of the world, the home
  Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree;
  Even in thy desert, what is like to thee?
  Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste
  More rich than other climes' fertility;
  Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.


  The moon is up, and yet it is not night --
  Sunset divides the sky with her -- a sea
  Of glory streams along the Alpine height
  Of blue Friuli's mountains; Heaven is free
  From clouds, but of all colours seems to be
  Melted to one vast Iris of the West,
  Where the Day joins the past Eternity;
  While, on the other hand, meek Dian's crest
Floats through the azure air -- an island of the blest!


  A single star is at her side, and reigns
  With her o'er half the lonely heaven; but still
  Yon sunny sea heaves brightly, and remains
  Roll'd o'er the peak of the far Rhætian hill,
  As Day and Night contending were, until
  Nature reclaim'd her order: -- gently flows
  The deep-dyed Brenta, where their hues instill
  The odorous purple of a new-born rose,
Which streams upon her stream, and glass'd within it glows.


  Fill'd with the face of heaven, which, from afar,
  Comes down upon the waters; all its hues,
  From the rich sunset to the rising star,
  Their magical variety diffuse:
  And now they change; a paler shadow strews
  Its mantle o'er the mountains; parting day
  Dies like the dolphin, whom each pang imbues
  With a new colour as it gasps away,
The last still loveliest, till -- 'tis gone -- and all is gray.


  There is a tomb in Arqua; -- rear'd in air,
  Pillar'd in their sarcophagus, repose
  The bones of Laura's lover: here repair
  Many familiar with his well-sung woes,
  The pilgrims of his genius.  He arose
  To raise a language, and his land reclaim
  From the dull yoke of her barbaric foes:
  Watering the tree which bears his lady's name
With his melodious tears, he gave himself to fame.


  They keep his dust in Arqua, where he died;
  The mountain-village where his latter days
  Went down the vale of years; and 'tis their pride --
  An honest pride -- and let it be their praise,
  To offer to the passing stranger's gaze
  His mansion and his sepulchre; both plain
  And venerably simple, such as raise
  A feeling more accordant with his strain
Than if a pyramid form'd his monumental fane.


  And the soft quiet hamlet where he dwelt
  Is one of that complexion which seems made
  For those who their mortality have felt,
  And sought a refuge from their hopes decay'd
  In the deep umbrage of a green hill's shade,
  Which shows a distant prospect far away
  Of busy cities, now in vain display'd,
  For they can lure no further; and the ray
Of a bright sun can make sufficient holiday.


  Developing the mountains, leaves, and flowers,
  And shining in the brawling brook, where-by,
  Clear as its current, glide the sauntering hours
  With a calm languor, which, though to the eye
  Idlesse it seem, hath its morality.
  If from society we learn to live,
  'Tis solitude should teach us how to die;
  It hath no flatterers; vanity can give
No hollow aid; alone -- man with his God must strive:


  Or, it may be, with demons, who impair
  The strength of better thoughts, and seek their prey
  In melancholy bosoms, such as were
  Of moody texture from their earliest day,
  And loved to dwell in darkness and dismay,
  Deeming themselves predestined to a doom
  Which is not of the pangs that pass away;
  Making the sun like blood, the earth a tomb,
The tomb a hell, and hell itself a murkier gloom.


  Ferrara! in thy wide and grass-grown streets,
  Whose symmetry was not for solitude,
  There seems as 'twere a curse upon the seats
  Of former sovereigns, and the antique brood
  Of Este, which for many an age made good
  Its strength within thy walls, and was of yore
  Patron or tyrant, as the changing mood
  Of petty power impell'd, of those who wore
The wreath which Dante's brow alone had worn before.


  And Tasso is their glory and their shame.
  Hark to his strain! and then survey his cell!
  And see how dearly earn'd Torquato's fame,
  And where Alfonso bade his poet dwell.
  The miserable despot could not quell
  The insulted mind he sought to quench, and blend
  With the surrounding maniacs, in the hell
  Where he had plunged it.  Glory without end
Scatter'd the clouds away -- and on that name attend


  The tears and praises of all time, while thine
  Would rot in its oblivion -- in the sink
  Of worthless dust, which from thy boasted line
  Is shaken into nothing; but the link
  Thou formest in his fortunes bids us think
  Of thy poor malice, naming thee with scorn --
  Alfonso! how thy ducal pageants shrink
  From thee! if in another station born,
Scarce fit to be the slave of him thou mad'st to mourn:


  /Thou!/ form'd to eat, and be despised, and die,
  Even as the beasts that perish, save that thou
  Hadst a more splendid trough and wider sty:
  /He!/ with a glory round his furrow'd brow,
  Which emanated then, and dazzles now,
  In face of all his foes, the Cruscan quire,
  And Boileau, whose rash envy could allow
  No strain which shamed his country's creaking lyre,
That whetstone of the teeth -- monotony in wire!


  Peace to Torquato's injured shade! 'twas his
  In life and death to be the mark where Wrong
  Aim'd with her poison'd arrows; but to miss.
  Oh, victor unsurpass'd in modern song!
  Each year brings forth its millions; but how long
  The tide of generations shall roll on,
  And not the whole combined and countless throng
  Compose a mind like thine! though all in one
Condensed their scatter'd rays, they would not form a man.


  Great as thou art, yet parallel'd by those,
  Thy countrymen, before thee born to shine,
  The Bards of Hell and Chivalry: first rose
  The Tuscan father's comedy divine;
  Then, not unequal to the Florentine,
  The southern Scott, the minstrel who call'd forth
  A new creation with his magic line,
  And, like the Ariosto of the North,
Sang ladye-love and war, romance and knightly worth.


  The lightning rent from Ariosto's bust
  The iron crown of laurel's mimick'd leaves;
  Nor was the ominous element unjust,
  For the true laurel-wreath which Glory weaves
  Is of the tree no bolt of thunder cleaves,
  And the false semblance but disgraced his brow;
  Yet still, if fondly Superstition grieves,
  Know, that the lightning sanctifies below
Whate'er it strikes; -- yon head is doubly sacred now!


  Italia!  O Italia! thou who hast
  The fatal gift of beauty, which became
  A funeral dower of present woes and past,
  On thy sweet brow is sorrow plough'd by shame,
  And annals graved in characters of flame.
  O God! that thou wert in thy nakedness
  Less lovely or more powerful, and couldst claim
  Thy right, and awe the robbers back, who press
To shed thy blood, and drink the tears of thy distress;


  Then might thou more appal; or, less desired,
  Be homely and be peaceful, undeplored
  For thy destructive charms; then, still untired,
  Would not be seen the armèd torrents pour'd
  Down the steep Alps; nor would the hostile horde
  Of many-nation'd spoilers from the Po
  Quaff blood and water; nor the stranger's sword
  Be thy sad weapon of defence, and so,
Victor or vanquish'd, thou the slave of friend or foe.


  Wandering in youth, I traced the path of him,
  The Roman friend of Rome's least mortal mind,
  The friend of Tully: as my bark did skim
  The bright blue waters with a fanning wind,
  Came Megara before me, and behind
  Ægina lay, Piræus on the right,
  And Corinth on the left; I lay reclined
  Along the prow, and saw all these unite
In ruin, even as he had seen the desolate sight;


  For time hath not rebuilt them, but uprear'd
  Barbaric dwellings on their shatter'd site,
  Which only make more mourn'd and more endear'd
  The last few rays of their far-scatter'd light,
  And the crush'd relics of their vanish'd might.
  The Roman saw these tombs in his own age,
  These sepulchres of cities, which excite
  Sad wonder, and his yet surviving page
  The moral lesson bears, drawn from such pilgrimage.


  That page is now before me, and on mine
  /His/ country's ruin added to the mass
  Of perish'd states he mourn'd in their decline,
  And I in desolation: all that /was/
  Of then destruction /is;/ and now, alas!
  Rome -- Rome imperial, bows her to the storm,
  In the same dust and blackness, and we pass
  The skeleton of her Titanic form,
Wrecks of another world, whose ashes still are warm.


  Yet, Italy! through every other land
  Thy wrongs should ring, and shall, from side to side;
  Mother of Arts! as once of Arms; thy hand
  Was then our guardian, and is still our guide;
  Parent of our Religion! whom the wide
  Nations have knelt to for the keys of heaven!
  Europe, repentant of her parricide,
  Shall yet redeem thee, and, all backward driven,
Roll the barbarian tide, and sue to be forgiven.


  But Arno wins us to the fair white walls,
  Where the Etrurian Athens claims and keeps
  A softer feeling for her fairy halls.
  Girt by her theater of hills, she reaps
  Her corn, and wine, and oil, and Plenty leaps
  To laughing life, with her redundant horn.
  Along the banks where smiling Arno sweeps
  Was modern luxury of Commerce born,
And buried Learning rose, redeem'd to a new morn.


  There, too, the Goddess loves in stone, and fills
  The air around with beauty; we inhale
  The ambrosial aspect, which, belied, instils
  Part of its immortality; the veil
  Of heaven is half undrawn; within the pale
  We stand, and in that form and face behold
  What Mind can make, when Nature's self would fall;
  And to the fond idolators of old
Envy the innate flash which such a soul could mould:


  We gaze and turn away, and know not where,
  Dazzled and drunk with beauty, till the heart
  Reels with its fulness; there -- for ever there --
  Chain'd to the chariot of triumphal Art,
  We stand as captives, and would not depart.
  Away! -- there need no words nor terms precise,
  The paltry jargon of the marble mart,
  Where Pedantry gulls Folly -- we have eyes:
Blood -- pulse -- and breast, confirm the Dardan Shepherd's prize.


  Appear'dst thou not to Paris in this guise?
  Or to more deeply blest Anchises? or,
  In all thy perfect goddess-ship, when lies
  Before thee thy own vanquish'd Lord of War?
  And gazing in thy face as toward a star,
  Laid on thy lap, his eyes to thee upturn,
  Feeding on thy sweet cheek! while thy lips are
  With lava kisses melting while they burn,
Shower'd on his eyelids, brow, and mouth, as from an urn!


  Glowing, and circumfused in speechless love,
  Their full divinity inadequate
  That feeling to express, or to improve,
  The gods became as mortals, and man's fate
  Has moments like their brightest; but the weight
  Of earth recoils upon us; -- let it go!
  We can recall such visions, and create,
  From what has been, or might be, things which grow
Into thy statue's form, and look like gods below.


  I leave to learnèd fingers, and wise hands,
  The artist and his ape, to teach and tell
  How well his connoisseurship understands
  The graceful bend, and the voluptuous swell:
  Let these describe the undescribable:
  I would not their vile breath should crisp the stream
  Wherein that image shall for ever dwell;
  The unruffled mirror of the loveliest dream
That ever left the sky on the deep soul to beam.


  In Santa Croce's holy precincts lie
  Ashes which make it holier, dust which is
  Even it itself an immortality,
  Though there were nothing save the past, and thus
  The particle of those sublimities
  Which have relapsed to chaos: -- here repose
  Angelo's, Alfieri's bones, and his,
  The starry Galileo, with his woes;
Here Machiavelli's earth return'd to whence it rose.


  These are four minds, which, like the elements,
  Might furnish forth creation: -- Italy!
  Time, which hath wrong'd thee with ten thousand rents
  Of thine imperial garment, shall deny,
  And hath denied, to every other sky,
  Spirits which soar from ruin: -- thy decay
  Is still impregnate with divinity,
  Which gilds it with revivifying ray;
Such is the great of yore, Canova is to-day.


  But where repose the all Etruscan three --
  Dante, and Petrarch, and, scarce less than they,
  The Bard of Prose, creative spirit! he
  Of the Hundred Tales of love -- where did they lay
  Their bones, distinguish'd from our common clay
  In death as life?  Are they resolved to dust,
  And have their country's marbles nought to say?
  Could not her quarries furnish forth one bust?
Did they not to her breast their filial earth entrust?


  Ungrateful Florence!  Dante sleeps afar,
  Like Scipio, buried by the upbraiding shore;
  Thy factions, in their worse than civil war,
  Proscribed the bard whose name for evermore
  Their children's children would in vain adore
  With the remorse of ages; and the crown
  Which Petrarch's laureate brow supremely wore,
  Upon a far and foreign soil had grown,
His life, his fame, his grave, though rifled -- not thine own.


  Boccaccio to his parent earth bequeathed
  His dust, -- and lies it not her Great among,
  With many a sweet and solemn requiem breathed
  O'er him who form'd the Tuscan's siren tongue?
  That music in itself, whose sounds are song,
  The poetry of speech?  No; -- even his tomb
  Uptorn, must bear the hyæna bigot's wrong,
  No more amidst the meaner dead find room,
Nor claim a passing sigh, because it told for /whom!/


  And Santa Croce wants their mighty dust;
  Yet for this want more noted, as of yore
  The Cæsar's pageant, shorn of Brutus' bust,
  Did but of Rome's best Son remind her more:
  Happier Ravenna! on thy hoary shore,
  Fortress of falling empire! honour'd sleeps
  The immortal exile; -- Arqua, too, her store
  Of tuneful relics proudly claims and keeps,
While Florence vainly begs her banish'd dead, and weeps.


  What is her pyramid of precious stones?
  Of porphyry, jasper, agate, and all hues
  Of gem and marble, to encrust the bones
  Of merchant-dukes?  the momentary dues
  Which, sparkling to the twilight stars, infuse
  Freshness in the green turf that wraps the dead,
  Whose names are mausoleums of the Muse,
  Are gently prest with far more reverend tread
Than ever paced the slab which paves the princely head.


  There be more things to greet the heart and eyes
  In Arno's dome of Art's most princely shrine,
  Where Sculpture with her rainbow sister vies;
  There be more marvels yet -- but not for mine:
  For I have been accustom'd to entwine
  My thoughts with Nature rather in the fields,
  Than Art in galleries: though a work divine
  Calls for my spirit's homage, yet it yields
Less than it feels, because the weapon which it wields


  Is of another temper, and I roam
  By Thrasimene's lake, in the defiles
  Fatal to Roman rashness, more at home;
  For there the Carthaginian's warlike wiles
  Come back before me, as his skill beguiles
  The host between the mountains and the shore,
  Where Courage falls in her despairing files,
  And torrents, swollen to rivers with their gore,
Reek through the sultry plain, with legions scatter'd o'er.


  Like to a forest fell'd by mountain winds;
  And such the storm of battle on this day,
  And such the frenzy, whose convulsion blinds
  To all save carnage, that, beneath the fray,
  An earthquake reel'd unheededly away!
  None felt stern Nature rocking at his feet,
  And yawning forth a grave for those who lay
  Upon their bucklers for a winding sheet;
Such is the absorbing hate when warring nations meet!


  The Earth to them was as a rolling bark
  Which bore them to Eternity; they saw
  The Ocean round, but had no time to mark
  The motions of their vessel; Nature's law,
  In them suspended, reck'd not of the awe
  Which reigns when mountains tremble, and the birds
  Plunge in the clouds for refuge, and withdraw
  From their down-toppling nests; and bellowing herds
Stumble o'er heaving plains, and man's dread hath no words.


  Far other scene is Thrasimene now;
  Her lake a sheet of silver, and her plain
  Rent by no ravage save the gentle plough;
  Her agèd trees rise thick as once the slain
  Lay where their roots are; but a brook hath ta'en --
  A little rill of scanty stream and bed --
  A name of blood from that day's sanguine rain;
  And Sanguinetto tells ye where the dead
Made the earth wet, and turn'd the unwilling waters red.


  But thou, Clitumnus! in thy sweetest wave
  Of the most living crystal that was e'er
  The haunt of river nymph, to gaze and lave
  Her limbs where nothing hid them, thou dost rear
  Thy grassy banks whereon the milk-white steer
  Grazes; the purest god of gentle waters!
  And most serene of aspect, and most clear;
  Surely that stream was unprofaned by slaughters,
A mirror and a bath for Beauty's youngest daughters!


  And on thy happy shore a Temple still,
  Of small and delicate proportions, keeps,
  Upon a mild declivity of hill,
  Its memory of thee; beneath it sweeps
  Thy current's calmness; oft from out it leaps
  The finny darter with the glittering scales,
  Who dwells and revels in thy glassy deeps;
  While, chance, some scatter'd water-lily sails
Down where the shallower wave still tells its bubbling tales.


  Pass not unblest the Genius of the place!
  If through the air a zephyr more serene
  Win to the brow, 'tis his; and if ye trace
  Along his margin a more eloquent green,
  If on the heart the freshness of the scene
  Sprinkle its coolness, and from the dry dust
  Of weary life a moment lave it clean
  With Nature's baptism, -- 'tis to him ye must
Pay orisons for this suspension of disgust.


  The roar of waters!  -- from the headlong height
  Velino cleaves the wave-worn precipice;
  The fall of waters! rapid as the light
  The flashing mass foams shaking the abyss;
  The hell of waters! where they howl and hiss,
  And boil in endless torture; while the sweat
  Of their great agony, wrung out from this
  Their Phlegethon, curls round the rocks of jet
That gird the gulf around, in pitiless horror set,


  And mounts in spray the skies, and thence again
  Returns in an unceasing shower, which round,
  With its unemptied cloud of gentle rain,
  Is an eternal April to the ground,
  Making it all one emerald: -- how profound
  The gulf! and how the giant element
  From rock to rock leaps with delirious bound,
  Crushing the cliffs, which, downward worn and rent,
With his fierce footsteps, yield in chasms a fearful vent


  To the broad column which rolls on, and shows
  More like the fountain of an infant sea
  Torn from the womb of mountains by the throes
  Of a new world, than only thus to be
  Parent of rivers, which flow gushingly,
  With many windings through the vale: -- Look back!
  Lo! where it comes like an eternity,
  As if to sweep down all things on its track,
Charming the eye with dread, -- a matchless cataract,


  Horribly beautiful! but on the verge,
  From side to side, beneath the glittering morn,
  An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge,
  Like Hope upon a death-bed, and, unworn,
  Its steady dyes, when all around is torn
  By the distracted waters, bears serene
  Its brilliant hues with all their beams unshorn:
  Resembling, 'mid the torture of the scene,
Love watching madness with unalterable mien.


  Once more upon the woody Apennine,
  The infant Alps, which -- had I not before
  Gazed on their mightier parents, where the pine
  Sits on more shaggy summits, and where roar
  The thundering lauwine -- might be worshipp'd more;
  But I have seen the soaring Jungfau rear
  Her never-trodden snow, and seen the hoar
  Glaciers of bleak Mont Blanc both far and near,
And in Chimari heard the thunder-hills of fear,


  The Acroceraunian mountains of old name;
  And on Parnassus seen the eagles fly
  Like spirits of the spot, as 'twere for fame,
  For still they soar'd unutterably high:
  I've look'd on Ida with a Trojan's eye;
  Athos, Olympus, Ætna, Atlas, made
  These hills seem things of lesser dignity,
  All save the lone Soracte's height display'd,
Not /now/ in snow, which asks the lyric Roman's aid


  For our remembrance, and from out the plain
  Heaves like a long-swept wave about to break,
  And on the curl hangs pausing: not in vain
  May he, who will, his recollections rake,
  And quote in classic raptures, and awake
  The hills with Latian echoes; I abhorr'd
  Too much, to conquer for the poet's sake,
  The drill's dull lesson, forced down word by word
In my repugnant youth, with pleasure to record


  Aught that recalls the daily drug which turn'd
  My sickening memory; and though Time hath taught
  My mind to meditate what then it learn'd,
  Yet such the fix'd inveteracy wrought
  By the impatience of my early thought,
  That, with the freshness wearing out before
  My mind could relish what it might have sought,
  If free to choose, I cannot now restore
Its health; but what it then detested, still abhor.


  Then farewell, Horace; whom I hated so,
  Not for thy faults, but mine; it is a curse
  To understand, not feel thy lyric flow,
  To comprehend, but never love thy verse,
  Although no deeper Moralist rehearse
  Our little life, nor Bard prescribe his art,
  Nor livelier Satirist the conscience pierce,
  Awakening without wounding the touch'd heart,
Yet fare thee well -- upon Soracte's ridge we part.


  O Rome! my country! city of the soul!
  The orphans of the heart must turn to thee,
  Lone mother of dead empires! and control
  In their shut breasts their petty misery.
  What are our woes and sufferance?  Come and see
  The cypress, hear the owl, and plod your way
  O'er steps of broken thrones and temples, Ye!
  Whose agonies are evils of a day --
A world is at our feet as fragile as our clay.


  The Niobe of nations! there she stands,
  Childless and crownless, in her voiceless woe;
  An empty urn within her wither'd hands,
  Whose holy dust was scatter'd long ago;
  The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now;
  The very sepulchres lie tenantless
  Of their heroic dwellers: dost thou flow,
  Old Tiber! through a marble wilderness?
Rise, with thy yellow waves, and mantle her distress.


  The Goth, the Christian, Time, War, Flood, and Fire,
  Have dealt upon the seven-hill'd city's pride;
  She saw her glories star by star expire,
  And up the steep barbarian monarchs ride,
  Where the car climb'd the capitol; far and wide
  Temple and tower went down, nor left a site: --
  Chaos of ruins! who shall trace the void,
  O'er the dim fragments cast a lunar light,
And say, "here was, or is," where all is doubly night?


  The double night of ages, and of her,
  Night's daughter, Ignorance, hath wrapt, and wrap
  All round us; we but feel our way to err;
  The ocean hath its chart, the stars their map,
  And Knowledge spreads them on her ample lap;
  But Rome is as the desert, where we steer
  Stumbling o'er recollections; now we clap
  Our hands, and cry "Eureka!" it is clear --
When but some false mirage of ruin rises near.


  Alas! the lofty city! and alas!
  The trebly hundred triumphs! and the day
  When Brutus made the dagger's edge surprise
  The conqueror's sword in bearing fame away!
  Alas, for Tully's voice, and Virgil's lay,
  And Livy's pictured page! -- but these shall be
  Her resurrection; all beside -- decay.
  Alas, for Earth, for never shall we see
That brightness in her eye she bore when Rome was free!


  O thou, whose chariot roll'd on Fortune's wheel,
  Triumphant Sylla!  Thou, who didst subdue
  Thy country's foes ere thou wouldst pause to feel
  The wrath of thy own wrongs, or reap the due
  Of hoarded vengeance till thine eagles flew
  O'er prostrate Asia; -- thou, who with thy frown
  Annihilated senates -- Roman, too,
  With all thy vices, for thou didst lay down
With an atoning smile a more than earthly crown,


  The dictatorial wreath, -- couldst thou divine
  To what would one day dwindle that which made
  Thee more than mortal? and that so supine
  By aught than Romans Rome should thus be laid?
  She who was named Eternal, and array'd
  Her warriors but to conquer -- she who veil'd
  Earth with her haughty shadow, and display'd,
  Until the o'er-canopied horizon fail'd,
Her rushing wings -- Oh! she who was Almighty hail'd!


  Sylla was first of victors; but our own
  The sagest of usurpers, Cromwell; he
  Too swept off senates while he hew'd the throne
  Down to a block -- immortal rebel!  See
  What crimes it costs to be a moment free
  And famous through all ages! but beneath
  His fate the moral lurks of destiny;
  His day of double victory and death
Beheld him win two realms, and, happier, yield his breath.


  The third of the same moon whose former course
  Had all but crown'd him, on the selfsame day
  Deposed him gently from his throne of force,
  And laid him with the earth's preceding clay.
  And shew'd not Fortune thus how fame and sway,
  And all we deem delightful, and consume
  Our souls to compass through each arduous way,
  Are in her eyes less happy than the tomb?
Were they but so in man's, how different were his doom!


  And thou, dread statue! yet existent in
  The austerest form of naked majesty,
  Thou who beheldest, 'mid the assassins' din,
  At thy bathed base the bloody Cæsar lie,
  Folding his robe in dying dignity
  An offering to thine altar from the queen
  Of gods and men, great Nemesis! did he die,
  And thou, too, perish, Pompey?  have ye been
Victors of countless kings, or puppets of a scene?


  And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome!
  She-wolf! whose brazen-imaged dugs impart
  The milk of conquest yet within the dome
  Where, as a monument of antique art,
  Thou standest: -- Mother of the mighty heart,
  Which the great founder suck'd from thy wild teat,
  Scorch'd by the Roman Jove's ethereal dart,
  And thy limbs black'd with lightning -- dost thou yet
Guard thine immortal cubs, nor thy fond charge forget?


  Thou dost; -- but all thy foster-babes are dead --
  The men of iron; and the world hath rear'd
  Cities from out their sepulchres: men bled
  In imitation of the things they fear'd,
  And fought and conquer'd, and the same course steer'd,
  At apish distance; but as yet none have,
  Nor could, the same supremacy have near'd,
  Save one vain man, who is not in the grave,
But, vanquish'd by himself, to his own slaves a slave,


  The fool of false dominion -- and a kind
  Of bastard Cæsar, following him of old
  With steps unequal; for the Roman's mind
  Was modell'd in a less terrestrial mould,
  With passions fiercer, yet a judgement cold,
  And an immortal instinct which redeem'd
  The frailties of a heart so soft, yet bold.
  Alcides with the distaff now he seem'd
At Cleopatra's feet, -- and now himself he beam'd,


  And came, and saw, and conquer'd!  But the man
  Who would have tamed his eagles down to flee,
  Like a train'd falcon, in the Gallic van,
  Which he, in sooth, long led to victory,
  With a deaf heart which never seem'd to be
  A listener to itself, was strangely framed;
  With but one weakest weakness -- vanity:
  Coquettish in ambition, still he aim'd --
At what?  Can he avouch -- or answer what he claim'd?


  And would be all or nothing -- nor could wait
  For the sure grave to level him; few years
  Had fix'd him with the Cæsars in his fate,
  On whom we tread: for /this/ the conqueror rears
  The arch of triumph! and for this the tears
  And blood of earth flow on as they have flow'd,
  An universal deluge, which appears
  Without an ark for wretched man's abode,
And ebbs but to reflow! -- Renew thy rainbow, God!


  What from this barren being do we reap?
  Our senses narrow, and our reason frail,
  Life short, and truth a gem which loves the deep,
  And all things weigh'd in custom's falsest scale;
  Opinion an omnipotence, -- whose veil
  Mantles the earth with darkness, until right
  And wrong are accidents, and men grow pale
  Lest their own judgments should become too bright,
And their free thoughts be crimes, and earth have too much light.


  And thus they plod in sluggish misery,
  Rotting from sire to son, and age to age,
  Proud of their trampled nature, and so die,
  Bequeathing their hereditary rage
  To the new race of inborn slaves, who wage
  War for their chains, and rather than be free,
  Bleed gladiator-like, and still engage
  Within the same arena where they see
Their fellows fall before, like leaves of the same tree.


  I speak not of men's creeds -- they rest between
  Man and his Maker -- but of things allow'd,
  Averr'd, and known, -- and daily, hourly seen --
  The yoke that is upon us doubly bow'd,
  And the intent of tyranny avow'd,
  The edict of Earth's rulers, who are grown
  The apes of him who humbled once the proud,
  And shook them from their slumbers on the throne;
Too glorious, were this all his mighty arm had done.


  Can tyrants but by tyrants conquer'd be,
  And Freedom find no champion and no child
  Such as Columbia saw arise when she
  Sprung forth a Pallas, arm'd and undefiled?
  Or must such minds be nourish'd in the wild,
  Deep in the unpruned forest, 'midst the roar
  Of cataracts, where nursing Nature smiled
  On infant Washington?  Has Earth no more
Such seeds within her breast, or Europe no such shore?


  But France got drunk with blood to vomit crime,
  And fatal have her Saturnalia been
  To Freedom's cause, in every age and clime;
  Because the deadly days which we have seen,
  And vile Ambition, that built up between
  Man and his hopes an adamantine wall,
  And the base pageant last upon the scene,
  Are grown the pretext for the eternal thrall
Which nips life's tree, and dooms man's worst -- his second fall.


  Yet, Freedom! yet thy banner, torn, but flying,
  Streams like the thunder-storm /against/ the wind;
  Thy trumpet-voice, though broken now and dying,
  The loudest still the tempest leaves behind;
  Thy tree hath lost its blossoms, and the rind,
  Chopp'd by the axe, looks rough and little worth,
  But the sap lasts -- and still the seed we find
  Sown deep, even in the bosom of the North:
So shall a better spring less bitter fruit bring forth.


  There is a stern round tower of other days,
  Firm as a fortress, with its fence of stone,
  Such as an army's baffled strength delays,
  Standing with half its battlements alone,
  And with two thousand years of ivy grown,
  The garland of eternity, where wave
  The green leaves over all by time o'erthrown; --
  What was this tower of strength?  within its cave
What treasure lay so lock'd, so hid? -- A woman's grave.


  But who was she, the lady of the dead,
  Tomb'd in a palace?  Was she chaste and fair?
  Worthy a king's -- or more -- a Roman's bed?
  What race of chiefs and heroes did she bear?
  What daughter of her beauties was the heir?
  How lived -- how loved -- how died she?  Was she not
  So honour'd -- and conspicuously there,
  Where meaner relics must not dare to rot,
Placed to commemorate a more than mortal lot?


  Was she as those who love their lords, or they
  Who love the lords of others?  such have been
  Even in the olden time, Rome's annals say.
  Was she a matron of Cornelia's mien,
  Or the light air of Egypt's graceful queen,
  Profuse of joy -- or 'gainst it did she war,
  Inveterate in virtue?  Did she lean
  To the soft side of the heart, or wisely bar
Love from amongst her griefs? -- for such affections are.


  Perchance she died in youth: it may be, bow'd
  With woes far heavier than the ponderous tomb
  That weigh upon her gentle dust, a cloud
  Might gather o'er her beauty, and a gloom
  In her dark eye, prophetic of the doom
  Heaven gives its favourites -- early death; yet shed
  A sunset charm around her, and illume
  With hectic light the Hesperus of the dead,
Of her consuming cheek the autumnal leaf-like red.


  Perchance she died in age -- surviving all,
  Charms, kindred, children -- with the silver gray
  On her long tresses, which might yet recall,
  It may be, still a something of the day
  When they were braided, and her proud array
  And lovely form were envied, praised, and eye
  By Rome -- But, whither would Conjecture stray?
  Thus much alone we knew -- Metella died,
The wealthiest Roman's wife: Behold his love or pride!


  I know not why -- but standing thus by thee
  It seems as if I had thine inmate known,
  Thou Tomb! and other days come back on me
  With recollected music, though the tone
  Is changed and solemn, like the cloudy groan
  Of dying thunder on the distant wind;
  Yet could I seat me by this ivied stone
  Till I had bodied forth the heated mind,
Forms from the floating wreck with Ruin leaves behind;


  And from the planks, far shatter'd o'er the rocks,
  Built me a little bark of hope, once more
  To battle with the ocean and the shocks
  Of the loud breakers, and the ceaseless roar
  Which rushes on the solitary shore
  Where all lies founder'd that was ever dear:
  But could I gather from the wave-worn store
  Enough for my rude boat, where should I steer?
There woos no home, nor hope, nor life, save what is here.


  Then let the winds howl on! their harmony
  Shall henceforth be my music, and the night
  The sound shall temper with the owlets' cry,
  As I now hear them, in the fading light
  Dim o'er the bird of darkness' native site,
  Answering each other on the Palatine,
  With their large eyes, all glistening gray and bright,
  And sailing pinions. -- Upon such a shrine
What are our petty griefs? -- let me not number mine.


  Cypress and ivy, weed and wallflower grown
  Matted and mass'd together, hillocks heap'd
  On what were chambers, arch crush'd, column strown
  In fragments, choked up vaults, and frescoes steep'd
  In subterranean damps, where the owl peep'd,
  Deeming it midnight: -- Temples, baths or halls?
  Pronounce who can; for all that learning reap'd
  From her research hath been, that these are walls --
Behold the Imperial Mount! 'tis thus the mighty falls.


  There is the moral of all human tales;
  'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past,
  First Freedom, and then Glory -- when that fails,
  Wealth, vice, corruption -- barbarism at last.
  And History, with all her volumes vast,
  Hath but /one/ page -- 'tis better written here,
  Where gorgeous Tyranny hath thus amass'd
  All treasures, all delights, that eye or ear,
Heart, soul could seek, tongue ask -- Away with words: draw near,


  Admire, exult -- despise -- laugh, weep, -- for here
  There is such matter for all feeling: -- Man!
  Thou pendulum betwixt a smile and tear,
  Ages and realms are crowded in this span,
  This mountain, whose obliterated plan
  The pyramid of empires pinnacled,
  Of Glory's gewgaws shining in the van
  Till the sun's rays with added flame were fill'd!
Where are its golden roofs? where those who dare to build?


  Tully was not so eloquent as thou,
  Thou nameless column with the buried base!
  What are the laurels of the Cæsar's brow?
  Crown me with ivy from his dwelling-place.
  Whose arch or pillar meets me in the face,
  Titus or Trajan's?  No -- 'tis that of Time:
  Triumph, arch, pillar, all he doth displace,
  Scoffing; and apostolic statues climb
To crush the imperial urn, whose ashes slept sublime,


  Buried in air, the deep blue sky of Rome,
  And looking to the stars: they had contain'd
  A spirit which with these would find a home,
  The last of those who o'er the whole earth reign'd,
  The Roman globe, for after none sustain'd,
  But yielded back his conquests: he was more
  Than a mere Alexander, and unstain'd
  With household blood and wine, serenely wore
His sovereign virtues -- still we Trajan's name adore.


  Where is the rock of Triumph, the high place
  Where Rome embraced her heroes? where the steep
  Tarpeian? fittest goal of Treason's race,
  The promontory whence the Traitor's Leap
  Cured all ambition.  Did the Conquerors heap
  Their spoils here?  Yes; and in yon field below,
  A thousand years of silenced factions sleep --
  The Forum, where the immortal accents glow,
And still the eloquent air breathes -- burns with Cicero!


  The field of freedom, faction, fame, and blood:
  Here a proud people's passions were exhaled,
  From the first hour of empire in the bud
  To that when further worlds to conquer fail'd;
  But long before had Freedom's face been veil'd,
  And Anarchy assumed her attributes;
  Till every lawless soldier who assail'd
  Trod on the trembling Senate's slavish mutes,
Or raised the venal voice of baser prostitutes.


  Then turn we to our latest tribune's name,
  From her ten thousand tyrants turn to thee,
  Redeemer of dark centuries of shame --
  The friend of Petrarch -- hope of Italy --
  Rienzi! last of Romans!  While the tree
  Of freedom's wither'd trunk puts forth a leaf,
  Even for thy tomb a garland let it be --
  The forum's champion, and the people's chief --
Her new-born Numa thou -- with reign, alas! too brief.


  Egeria! sweet creation of some heart
  Which found no mortal resting-place so fair
  As thine ideal breast; whate'er thou art
  Or wert, -- a young Aurora of the air,
  The nympholepsy of some fond despair;
  Or, it might be, a beauty of the earth,
  Who found a more than common votary there
  Too much adorning; whatso'er thy birth,
Thou wert a beautiful thought, and softly bodied forth.


  The mosses of thy fountain still are sprinkled
  With thine Elysian water-drops; the face
  Of thy cave-guarded spring, with years unwrinkled,
  Reflects the meek-eyed genius of the place,
  Whose green wild margin now no more erase
  Art's works; nor must the delicate waters sleep,
  Prison'd in marble, bubbling from the base
  Of the cleft statue; with a gentle leap
The rill runs o'er, and round, fern, flowers, and ivy creep,


  Fantastically tangled: the green hills
  Are clothed with early blossoms, through the grass
  The quick-eyed lizard rustles, and the bills
  Of summer-birds sing welcome as ye pass;
  Flowers fresh in hue and many in their class,
  Implore the pausing step, and with their dyes
  Dance in the soft breeze in a fairy mass;
  The sweetness of the violet's deep blue eyes,
Kiss'd by the breath of heaven, seems colour'd by its skies.


  Here didst thou dwell, in this enchanted cover,
  Egeria! thy all heavenly bosom beating
  For the far footsteps of thy mortal lover;
  The purple Midnight veil'd that mystic meeting
  With her most starry canopy, and seating
  Thyself by thine adorer, what befell?
  This cave was only shaped out for the greeting
  Of an enamour'd Goddess, and the cell
Haunted by holy Love -- the earliest oracle!


  And didst thou not, thy breast to his replying,
  Blend a celestial with a human heart;
  And Love, which dies as it was born, in sighing,
  Share with immortal transport?  could thine art
  Make them indeed immortal, and impart
  The purity of heaven to earthly joys,
  Expel the venom and not blunt the dart --
  The dull satiety which all destroys --
And root from out the soul the deadly weed which cloys?


  Alas! our young affections run to waste,
  Or water but the desert; whence arise
  But weeds of dark luxuriance, tares of haste,
  Rank at the core, though tempting to the eyes,
  Flowers whose wild odours breathe but agonies,
  And trees whose gums are poison; such the plants
  Which spring beneath her steps as Passion flies
  O'er the world's wilderness, and vainly pants
For some celestial fruit forbidden to our wants.


  O Love! no habitant of earth thou art --
  An unseen seraph, we believe in thee,
  A faith whose martyrs are the broken heart,
  But never yet hath seen, nor e'er shall see
  The naked eye, thy form, as it should be;
  The mind hath made thee, as it peopled heaven,
  Even with its own desiring phantasy,
  And to a thought such shape and image given,
As haunts the unquench'd soul -- parch'd -- wearied -- wrung -- and riven.


  Of its own beauty is the mind diseased,
  And fevers into false creation: -- where,
  Where are the forms the sculptor's soul hath seized?
  In him alone.  Can Nature show so fair?
  Where are the charms and virtues which we dare
  Conceive in boyhood and pursue as men,
  The unreach'd Paradise of our despair,
  Which o'er-informs the pencil and the pen,
And overpowers the page where it would bloom again?


  Who loves, raves -- 'tis youth's frenzy -- but the cure
  Is bitterer still; as charm by charm unwinds
  Which robed our idols, and we see too sure
  Nor worth nor beauty dwells from out the mind's
  Ideal shape of such; yet still it binds
  The fatal spell, and still it draws us on,
  Reaping the whirlwind from the oft-sown winds;
  The stubborn hear, its alchemy begun,
Seems over near the prize -- wealthiest when most undone.


  We wither from our youth, we gasp away --
  Sick -- sick; unfound the boon -- unslaked the thirst,
  Though to the last, in verge of our decay,
  Some phantom lures, such as we sought at first --
  But all too late -- so are we doubly curst.
  Love, fame, ambition, avarice -- 'tis the same,
  Each idle -- and all ill -- and none the worst --
  For all are meteors with a different name,
And Death the sable smoke where vanishes the flame.


  Few -- none -- find what they love or could have loved;
  Though accident, blind contact, and the strong
  Necessity of loving, have removed
  Antipathies -- but to recur, ere long,
  Envenom'd with irrevocable wrong;
  And Circumstance, that unspiritual god
  And miscreator, makes and helps along
  Our coming evils with a crutch-like rod,
Whose touch turns Hope to dust -- the dust we all have trod.


  Our life is a false nature -- 'tis not in
  The harmony of things, -- this hard decree,
  This uneradicable taint of sin,
  This boundless upas, this all-blasting tree
  Whose root is in the earth, whose leaves and branches be
  The skies which rain their plagues on men like dew --
  Disease, death, bondage, all the woes we see --
  And worse, the woes we see not -- which throb through
The immedicable soul, with heart-aches ever new.


  Yet let us ponder boldly -- 'tis a base
  Abandonment of reason to resign
  Our right of thought -- our last and only place
  Of refuge; this, at least, shall still be mine:
  Though from our birth the faculty divine
  Is chain'd and tortured -- cabin'd, cribb'd, confined,
  And bred in darkness, lest the truth should shine
  Too brightly on the unprepared mind,
The beam pours in, for time and skill will couch the blind.


  Arches on arches! as it were that Rome,
  Collecting the chief trophies of her line,
  Would build up all her triumphs in one dome,
  Her Coliseum stands; the moonbeams shine
  As 'twere its natural torches, for divine
  Should be the light which streams here, to illume
  This long-explored but still exhaustless mine
  Of contemplation; and the azure gloom
Of an Italian night, where the deep skies assume


  Hues which have words, and speak to ye of heaven,
  Floats o'er this vast and wondrous monument,
  And shadows forth its glory.  There is given
  Unto the things of earth, which Time hath bent,
  A spirit's feeling, and where he hath leant
  His hand, but broke his scythe, there is a power
  And magic in the ruin'd battlement,
  For which the palace of the present hour
Must yield its pomp, and wait till ages are its dower.


  O Time! the beautifier of the dead,
  Adorner of the ruin, comforter
  And only healer where heart hath bled --
  Time! the corrector where our judgments err,
  The test of truth, love, -- sole philosopher,
  For all beside are sophists, from thy thrift,
  Which never loses though it doth defer --
  Time, the avenger! unto thee I lift
My hands, and eyes, and heart, and crave of thee a gift:


  Amidst this wreck, where thou hast made a shrine
  And temple more divinely desolate,
  Among thy mightier offerings here are mine,
  Ruins of years -- though few, yet full of fate: --
  If thou hast ever seen me too elate,
  Hear me not; but if calmly I have borne
  Good, and reserved my pride against the hate
  Which shall not whelm me, let me not have worn
This iron in my soul in vain -- shall /they/ not mourn?


  And thou, who never yet of human wrong
  Left the unbalanced scale, great Nemesis!
  Here, where the ancient paid thee homage long --
  Thou, who didst call the Furies from the abyss,
  And round Orestes bade them howl and hiss
  For that unnatural retribution -- just,
  Had it but been from hands less near -- in this
  Thy former realm, I call thee from the dust!
Dost thou not hear my heart? -- Awake! thou shalt, and must.


  It is not that I may not have incurr'd
  For my ancestral faults or mine the wound
  I bleed withal, and had it been conferr'd
  With a just weapon, it had flow'd unbound;
  But now my blood shall not sink in the ground;
  To thee I do devote it -- /thou/ shalt take
  The vengeance, which shall yet be sought and found,
  Which if /I/ have not taken for the sake --
But let that pass -- I sleep, but thou shalt yet awake.


  And if my voice break forth, 'tis not that now
  I shrink from what is suffer'd: let him speak
  Who hath beheld decline upon my brow,
  Or seen my mind's convulsion leave it weak;
  But in this page a record will I seek.
  Not in the air shall these my words disperse,
  Though I be ashes, a far hour shall wreak
  The deep prophetic fulness of this verse,
And pile on human heads the mountain of my curse!


  That curse shall be Forgiveness. -- Have I not --
  Hear me, my mother Earth!  behold it, Heaven! --
  Have I not had to wrestle with my lot?
  Have I not suffer'd things to be forgiven?
  Have I not had my brain sear'd, my heart riven,
  Hopes sapp'd, name blighted, my heart riven,
  And only not to desperation driven,
  Because not altogether of such clay
As rots into the souls of those whom I survey.


  From mighty wrong to petty perfidy
  Have I not seen what human things could do?
  From the loud roar of foaming calumny
  To the small whisper of the as paltry few,
  And subtler venom of the reptile crew,
  The Janus glance of whose significant eye,
  Learning to lie with silence, would /seem/ true,
  And without utterance, save the shrug or sigh,
Deal round to happy fools its speechless obloquy.


  But I have lived, and have not lived in vain:
  My mind may lose its force, my blood its fire,
  And my frame perish even in conquering pain,
  But there is that within me which shall tire
  Torture and Time, and breathe when I expire;
  Something unearthly, which they deem not of,
  Like the remember'd tone of a mute lyre,
  Shall on their soften'd spirits sink, and move
In hearts all rocky, now the late remorse of love.


  The seal is set. -- Now welcome, thou dread power!
  Nameless, yet thus omnipotent, which here
  Walk'st in the shadow of the midnight hour
  With a deep awe, yet all distinct from fear:
  Thy haunts are ever where the dead walls rear
  Their ivy mantles, and the solemn scene
  Derives from thee a sense so deep and clear
  That we become a part of what has been,
And grow unto the spot, all-seeing but unseen.


  And the buzz of eager nations ran,
  In murmur'd pity, or loud-roar'd applause,
  As man was slaughter'd by his fellow-man,
  And wherefore slaughter'd?  wherefore, but because
  Such was the bloody Circus' genial laws,
  And the imperial pleasure. -- Wherefore not?
 What matters where we fall to fill the maws
  Of worms -- on battle-plains or listed spot?
Both are but theatres where the chief actors rot.


  I see before me the Gladiator lie:
  He leans upon his hand -- his manly brow
  Consents to death, but conquers agony,
  And his droop'd head sinks gradually low --
  And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow
  From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one,
  Like the first of a thunder-shower; and now
  The arena swims around him -- he is gone,
Ere ceased the inhuman shout which hail'd the wretch who won.


  He heard it, but he heeded not -- his eyes
  Were with his heart, and that was far away;
  He reck'd not of the life he lost nor prize,
  But where his rude hut by the Danube lay,
  /There/ were his young barbarians all at play,
  /There/ was their Dacian mother -- he, their sire,
  Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday --
  All this rush'd with his blood -- Shall he expire,
And unavenged? -- Arise! -- ye Goths, and glut your ire!


   But here, where murder breathed her bloody steam;
  And here, where buzzing nations choked the ways,
  And roar'd or murmur'd like a mountain-stream
  Dashing or winding as its torrent strays;
  Here where the Roman million's blame or prize
  Was death or life, the playthings of a crowd,
  My voice sounds much -- and fall the stars' faint rays
  On the arena void -- seats crush'd -- walls bow'd --
And galleries, where my steps seem echoes strangely loud.


  A ruin -- yet what ruin! from its mass
  Walls, palaces, half-cities, have been rear'd;
  Yet oft the enormous skeleton ye pass,
  And marvel where the spoil could have appear'd.
  Hath it indeed been plunder'd, or but clear'd?
  Alas! developed, opens the decay,
  When the colossal fabric's form is near'd;
  It will not bear the brightness of the day,
Which streams too much on all years, man, have reft away.


  But when the rising moon begins to climb
  Its topmost arch, and gently pauses there;
  When the stars twinkle through the loops of time,
  And the low night-breeze waves along the air
  The garland-forest, which the gray walls wear,
  Like laurels on the bald first Cæsar's head;
  When the light shines serene but doth not glare,
  Then in this magic circle raise the dead:
Heroes have trod this spot -- 'tis on their dust ye tread.


  "While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand;
  When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall;
  And when Rome falls -- the World."  From our own land
  Thus spake the pilgrims o'er this mighty wall
  In Saxon times, which we are wont to call
  Ancient; and these three mortal things are still
  On their foundations, and unalter'd all;
  Rome and her Ruin past Redemption's skill,
The World -- the same wide den -- of thieves, or what ye will.


  Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime --
  Shrine of all saints and temple of all gods,
  From Jove to Jesus -- spared and blest by time;
  Looking tranquillity, while falls or nods
  Arch, empire, each thing round thee, and man plods
  His way through thorns to ashes -- glorious dome!
  Shalt thou not last? -- Time's scythe and tyrants' rods
  Shiver upon thee -- sanctuary and home
Of art and piety -- Pantheon! -- pride of Rome!


  Relic of nobler days, and nobler arts!
  Despoil'd yet perfect, with thy circle spreads
  A holiness appealing to all hearts --
  To art a model; and to him who treads
  Rome for the sake of ages, Glory sheds
  Her light through thy sole aperture; to those
  Who worship, here are altars for their beads;
  And they who feel for genius may repose
Their eyes on honour'd forms, whose busts around them close.


  There is a dungeon, in whose dim drear light
  What do I gaze on?  Nothing: Look again!
  Two forms are slowly shadow'd on my sight --
  Two insulated phantoms of the brain:
  It is not so; I see them full and plain --
  An old man, and a female young and fair,
  Fresh as a nursing mother, in whose vein
  The blood is nectar; -- but what doth she there,
With her unmantled neck, and bosom white and bare?


  Full swells the deep pure fountain of young life,
  Where /on/ the heart and /from/ the heart we took
  Our first and sweetest nurture, when the wife,
  Blest into mother, in the innocent look,
  Or even the piping cry of lips that brook
  No pain and small suspense, a joy perceives
  Man knows not, when from out its cradled nook
  She sees her little bud put forth its leaves --
What may the fruit be yet? -- I know not -- Cain was Eve's.


  But here youth offers to old age the food,
  The milk of his own gift: -- it is her sire
  To whom she renders back the debt of blood
  Born with her birth.  No; he shall not expire
  While in those warm and lovely veins the fire
  Of health and holy feeling can provide
  Great Nature's Nile, whose deep stream rises higher
  Than Egypt's river: -- from that gentle side
Drink, drink and live, old man!  heaven's realm holds no such tide.


  The starry fable of the milky way
  Has not thy story's purity; it is
  A constellation of a sweeter ray,
  And sacred Nature triumphs more in this
  Reverse of her decree, than in the abyss
  Where sparkle distant worlds: -- Oh, holiest nurse!
  No drop of that clear stream its way shall miss
  To thy sire's heart, replenishing its source
With life, as our freed souls rejoin the universe.


  Turn to the Mole which Hadrian rear'd on high,
  Imperial mimic of old Egypt's piles,
  Colossal copyist of deformity,
  Whose travell'd phantasy from the far Nile's
  Enormous model, doom'd the artist's toils
  To build for giants, and for his vain earth,
  His shrunken ashes, raise this dome: How smiles
  The gazer's eye with philosophic mirth,
To view the huge design which sprung from such a birth!


  But lo! the dome -- the vast and wondrous dome,
  To which Diana's marvel was a cell --
  Christ's mighty shrine above his martyr's tomb!
  I have beheld the Ephesian's miracle --
  Its columns strew the wilderness, and dwell
  The hyæna and the jackal in their shade;
  I have beheld Sophia's bright roofs swell
  Their glittering mass i' the sun, and have survey'd
Its sanctuary the while the usurping Moslem pray'd;


  But thou, of temples old, or altars new,
  Standest alone -- with nothing like to thee --
  Worthiest of God, the holy and the true.
  Since Zion's desolation, when that He
  Forsook His former city, what could be,
  Of earthly structures, in His honour piled,
  Of a sublimer aspect?  Majesty,
  Power, Glory, Strength, and Beauty, all are aisled
In this eternal ark of worship undefiled.


  Enter: its grandeur overwhelms thee not;
  And why? it is not lessen'd; but thy mind,
  Expanded by the genius of the spot,
  Has grown colossal, and can only find
  A fit abode wherein appear enshrined
  Thy hopes of immortality; and thou
  Shalt one day, if found worthy, so defined,
  See thy God face to face, as thou dost now
His Holy of Holies, nor be blasted by His brow.


  Thou movest -- but increasing with advance,
  Like climbing some great Alp, which still doth rise,
  Deceived by its gigantic elegance;
  Vastness which grows -- but grows to harmonise --
  All musical in its immensities;
  Rich marbles -- richer painting -- shrine where flame
  The lamps of gold -- and haughty dome which vies
  In air with Earth's chief structures, though their frame
Sits on the firm-set ground -- and this the clouds must claim.


  Thou seest not all; but piecemeal thou must break,
  To separate contemplation, the great whole;
  And as the ocean many bays will make,
  That ask the eye -- so here condense thy soul
  To more immediate objects, and control
  Thy thought until thy mind hath got by heart
  Its eloquent proportions, and unroll
  In mighty graduations, part by part,
The glory which at once upon thee did not dart,


  Not by its fault -- but thine: Our outward sense
  Is but of gradual grasp -- and as it is
  That what we have of feeling most intense
  Outstrips our faint expression; even so this
  Outshining and o'erwhelming edifice
  Fools our fond gaze, and greatest of the great
  Defies at first our Nature's littleness,
  Till, growing with its growth, we thus dilate
Our spirits to the size of that they contemplate.


  Then pause, and be enlighten'd; there is more
  In such a survey than the sating gaze
  Of wonder pleased, or awe which would adore
  The worship of the place, or the mere praise
  Of art and its great masters, who could raise
  What former time, nor skill, nor thought could plan;
  The fountain of sublimity displays
  Its depth, and thence may draw the mind of man
Its golden sands, and learn what great conceptions can.


  Or, turning to the Vatican, go see
  Laocoon's torture dignifying pain --
  A father's love and mortal's agony
  With an immortal's patience blending: -- Vain
  The struggle; vain, against the coiling strain
  And gripe, and deepening of the dragon's grasp,
  The old man's clench; the long-envenom'd chain
  Rivets the living links, -- the enormous asp
Enforces pang on pang, and stifles gasp on gasp.


  Or view the Lord of the unerring bow,
  The God of life, and poesy, and light --
  The Sun in human limbs array'd, and brow
  All radiant from his triumph in the fight;
  The shaft hath just been shot -- the arrow bright
  With an immortal's vengeance; in his eye
  And nostril beautiful disdain, and might
  And majesty, flash their full lightnings by,
Developing in that one glance the Deity.


  But in his delicate form -- a dream of Love,
  Shaped by some solitary nymph, whose breast
  Long'd for a deathless lover from above,
  And madden'd in that vision -- are exprest
  All that ideal beauty ever bless'd
  The mind within its most unearthly mood,
  When each conception was a heavenly guest --
Starlike, around, until they gather'd to a god!


  And if it be Prometheus stole from heaven
  The fire which we endure, it was repaid
  By him to whom the energy was given
  Which this poetic marble hath array'd
  With an eternal glory -- which, if made
  By human hands, is not of human thought;
  And Time himself that hallow'd it, not laid
  One ringlet in the dust -- nor hath it caught
A tinge of years, but breathes the flame with which 'twas wrought.


  But where is he, the Pilgrim of my song,
  The being who upheld it through the past?
  Methinks he cometh late and tarries long.
  He is no more -- these breathings are his last;
  His wanderings done, his visions ebbing fast,
  And he himself as nothing: -- if he was
  Aught but a phantasy, and could be class'd
  With forms which live and suffer -- let that pass --
His shadow fades away into Destruction's mass,


  Which gathers shadow, substance, life, and all
  That we inherit in its mortal shroud,
  And spreads the dim and universal pall
  Through which all things grow phantoms; and the cloud
  Between us sinks and all which ever glow'd,
  Till Glory's self is twilight, and displays
  A melancholy halo scarce allow'd
  To hover on the verge of darkness; rays
Sadder than saddest night, for they distract the gaze,


  And send us prying into the abyss,
  To gather what we shall be when the frame
  Shall be resolved to something less than this
  Its wretched essence; and to dream of fame,
  And wipe the dust from off the idle name
  We never more shall hear, -- but never more,
  Oh, happier thought! can we be made the same:
  It is enough in sooth that /once/ we bore
These fardels of the heart -- the heart whose sweat was gore.


  Hark! forth from the abyss a voice proceeds,
  A long low distant murmur of dread sound,
  Such as arises when a nation bleeds
  With some deep and immedicable wound;
  Through storm and darkness yawns the rending ground.
  The gulf is thick with phantoms, but the chief
  Seems royal still, though with her head discrown'd,
  And pale, but lovely, with maternal grief
She clasps a babe, to whom her breast yields no relief.


  Scion of chiefs and monarchs, where art thou?
  Fond hope of many nations, art thou dead?
  Could not the grave forget thee, and lay low
  Some less majestic, less beloved head?
  In the sad midnight, while thy heart still bled,
  The mother of a moment, o'er thy boy,
  Death hush'd that pang for ever: with thee fled
  The present happiness and promised joy
Which fill'd the imperial isles so full it seem'd to cloy.


  Peasants bring forth in safety. -- Can it be,
  O thou that wert so happy, so adored!
  Those who weep not for kings shall weep for thee,
  And Freedom's heart, grown heavy, cease to hoard,
  Her many griefs for ONE; for she hath pour'd
  Her orisons for thee, and o'er thy head
  Beheld her Iris. -- Thou, too, lonely lord,
  And desolate consort -- vainly wert thou wed!
The husband of a year! the father of the dead!


  Of sackcloth was thy wedding garment made;
  Thy bridal's fruit is ashes: in the dust
  The fair-hair'd Daughter of the Isles is laid,
  The love of millions!  How we did entrust
  Futurity to her! and, though it must
  Darken above our bones, yet fondly deem'd
  Our children should obey her child, and bless'd
  Her and her hoped-for seed, whose promise seem'd
Like star to shepherds' eyes: -- 'twas but a meteor beam'd.


  Woe unto us, not her; for she sleeps well:
  The fickle reek of popular breath, the tongue
  Of hollow counsel, the false oracle,
  Which from the birth of monarchy hath rung
  Its knell in princely ears, till the o'erstung
  Nations have arm'd in madness, the strange fate
  Which tumbles mightiest sovereigns, and hath flung
  Against their blind omnipotence a weight
Within the opposing scale, which crushes soon or late, --


  These might have been her destiny; but no,
  Our hearts deny it: and so young, so fair,
  Good without effort, great without a foe;
  But now a bride and mother -- and now /there!/
  How many ties did that stern moment tear!
  From thy Sire's to his humblest subject's breast
  Is link'd the electric chain of that despair,
  Whose shock was as an earthquake's and opprest
The land which loved thee so that none could love thee best.


  Lo, Nemi! navell'd in the woody hills
  So far, that the uprooting wind which tears
  The oak from his foundation, and which spills
  The ocean o'er its boundary, and bears
  Its foam against the skies, reluctant spares
  The oval mirror of thy glassy lake;
  And, calm as cherish'd hate, its surface wears
  A deep cold settled aspect nought can shake,
All coil'd into itself and round, as sleeps the snake.


  And near Albano's scarce divided waves
  Shine from a sister valley; -- and afar
  The Tiber winds, and the broad ocean laves
  The Latian coast where sprung the Epic war,
  "Arms and the Man," whose reascending star
  Rose o'er an empire: -- but beneath thy right
  Tully reposed from Rome: -- and where yon bar
  Of girdling mountains intercepts the sight,
The Sabine farm was till'd, the weary bard's delight.


  But I forget, -- My Pilgrim's shrine is won,
  And he and I must part, -- so let it be --
  His task and mine alike are nearly done;
  Yet once more let us look upon the sea;
  The midland ocean breaks on him and me,
  And from the Alban Mount we now behold
  Our friend of youth, that Ocean, which when we
  Beheld it last by Calpe's rock unfold
Those waves, we follow'd on till the dark Euxine roll'd


  Upon the blue Symplegades: long years --
  Long, though not very many, since have done
  Their work on both; some suffering and some tears
  Have left us nearly where we had begun:
  Yet not in vain our mortal race hath run,
  We have had our reward -- and it is here;
  That we can yet feel gladden'd by the sun,
  And reap from earth, sea, joy almost as dear
As if there were no man to trouble what is clear.


  Oh! that the Desert were my dwelling-place,
  With one fair Spirit for my minister,
  That I might all forget the human race,
  And hating no one, love but only her!
  Ye Elements! -- in whose ennobling star
  I feel myself exalted -- Can ye not
  Accord me such a being?  Do I err
  In deeming such inhabit many a spot?
Though with them to converse can rarely be our lot.


  There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
  There is a rapture on the lonely shore,
  There is society where none intrudes,
  By the deep Sea, and music in its roar:
  I love not Man the less, but Nature more,
  From these our interviews, in which I steal
  From all I may be, or have been before,
  To mingle with the Universe, and feel
What I can ne'er express, yet cannot all conceal.


  Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean -- roll!
  Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain;
  Man marks the earth with ruin -- his control
  Stops with the shore; -- upon the watery plain
  The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain
  A shadow of man's ravage, save his own,
  When, for a moment, like a drop of rain,
  He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan,
Without a grave, unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown.


  His steps are not upon thy paths -- thy fields
  Are not a spoil for him -- thou dost arise
  And shake him from thee; the vile strength he wields
  For earth's destruction thou dost all despise,
  Spurning him from thy bosom to the skies,
  And send'st him, shivering in thy playful spray
  And howling, to his Gods, where haply lies
  His petty hope in some near port or bay
And dashest him again to earth: -- there let him lay.


  The armaments which thunderstrike the walls
  Of rock-built cities, bidding nations quake,
  And monarchs tremble in their capitals,
  The oak leviathans, whose huge ribs make
  Their clay creator the vain title take
  Of lord of thee, and arbiter of war;
  These are thy toys, and, as the snowy flake,
  They melt into thy yeast of waves, which mar
Alike the Armada's pride, or spoils of Trafalgar.


  Thy shores are empires, changed in all save thee --
  Assyria, Greece, Rome, Carthage, what are they?
  Thy waters wasted them while they were free,
  And many a tyrant since; their shores obey
  The stranger, slave, or savage; their decay
  Has dried up realms to deserts: -- not so thou,
  Unchangeable save to thy wild waves' play --
  Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow --
Such as creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now.


  Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form
  Glasses itself in tempests; in all time,
  Calm or convulsed -- in breeze, or gale, or storm,
  Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime
  Dark-heaving; -- boundless, endless, and sublime --
  The image of Eternity -- the throne
  Of the Invisible; even from out thy slime
  The monsters of the deep are made; each zone
Obeys thee; thou goest forth, dread, fathomless, alone.


  And I have thee, Ocean! and my joy
  Of youthful sports was thy breast to be
  Borne, like thy bubbles, onward: from a boy
  I wanton'd with thy breakers -- they to me
  Were a delight; and if the freshening sea
  Made them a terror -- 'twas a pleasing fear,
  For I was then as it were a child of thee,
  And trusted to thy billows far and near,
And laid my hand upon thy mane -- as I do here.


  My task is done -- my song hath ceased -- my theme
  Has died into an echo; it is fit
  The spell should break of this protracted dream.
  The torch shall be extinguish'd which hath lit
  My midnight lamp -- and what is writ is writ --
  Would it were worthier! but I am not now
  That which I have been -- and my visions flit
  Less palpably before me -- and the glow
Which in my spirit dwelt is fluttering, faint, and low.


  Farewell! a word that must be, and hath been --
  A sound which makes us linger; -- yet -- farewell!
  Ye! who have traced the Pilgrim to the scene
  Which is his last, if in your memories dwell
  A thought which once was his, if on ye swell
  A single recollection, not in vain
  He wore his sandal-shoon and scallop-shell;
  Farewell! with /him/ alone may rest the pain,
If such there were -- with /you/, the moral of his strain.

1.  The little village of Castri stands partly on the site of Delphi.  Along the path of the mountain, from Chrysso, are the remains of sepulchres hewn in and from the rock.  "One," said the guide, "of a king who broke his neck hunting."  His majesty had certainly chosen the fittest spot for such an achievement.  A little above Castri is a cave, supposed the Pythian, of immense depth; the upper part of it is paved, and now a cow-house.  On the other side of Castri stands a Greek monastery; some way above which is the cleft of the rock, with a range of caverns difficult of ascent, and apparently leading to the interior of the mountain; probably to the Corycian Cavern mentioned by Pausanias.  From this part descend the fountain and the "Dews of Castalie."

2.  The convent of "Our Lady of Punishment," /Nossa Senora de Pena,/ on the summit of the rock.  Below, at some distance, is the Cork Convent, where St Honorius dug his den, over which is his epitaph.  From the hills, the sea adds to the beauty of the view.

3.  It is well known fact, that in the year 1809, the assassinations in the streets of Lisbon and its vicinity were not confined by the Portuguese to their countrymen, but that Englishmen were daily butchered; and so far from redress being obtained, we were requested not to interfere if we perceived any compatriot defending himself against his allies.  I was once stopped in the way to the theatre at eight o'clock in the evening, when the streets were not more empty than they generally are at that hour, opposite to an open shop, and in a carriage with a friend: had we not fortunately been armed, I have not the least doubt that we should have "adorned a tale" instead of telling one.  The crime of assassination is not confined to Portugal: in Sicily and Malta we are knocked on the head at a handsome average nightly, and not a Sicilian or Maltese is ever punished!

4.  The Convention of Cintra was signed in the palace of the Marchese Marialva.

5.  Her luckless Majesty went subsequently mad: and Dr Willis, who so dextrously cudgelled kingly pericraniums, could make nothing of hers.

6.  As I found the Portuguese, so I have characterized them.  That they are since improved, at least in courage, is evident.  The late exploits of Lord Wellington have effaced the follies of Cintra.  He has, indeed, done wonders; he has, perhaps, changed the character of a nation, reconciled rival superstitions, and baffled an enemy who never retreated before his predecessors. -- 1812.

7.  Count Julian's daughter, the Helen of Spain.  Pelagius preserved his independence in the fastnesses of the Asturias, and the descendants of his followers, after some centuries, completed their struggle by the conquest of Grenada.

8.  "Viva el Rey Fernando!"  Long live King Ferdinand! is the chorus of most of the Spanish patriotic songs.  They are chiefly in dispraise of the old King Charles, the Queen, and the Prince of Peace.  I have heard many of them: some of the airs are beautiful.  Don Manuel Godoy, the /Principe de la Paz,/ of an ancient but decayed family, was born at Badajoz, on the frontiers of Portugal, and was originally in the ranks of the Spanish guards; till his person attracted the queen's eyes, and raised him to the dukedom of Alcudia, &c. &c.  It is to this man that the Spaniards universally impute the ruin of their country.

9.  The red cockade, with "Fernando VII." in the centre.

10.  All who have seen a battery will recollect the pyramidal form in which shot and shells are piled.  The Sierra Morena was fortified in every defile through which I passed in my way to Seville.

11.  Such were the exploits of the Maid of Saragoza, who by her valour elevated herself to the highest rank of heroines.  When the author was at Seville, she walked daily on the Prado, decorated with medals and orders, by command of the Junta.

12.  "Sigilla in mento impressa Amoris digitulo
        Vestigio demonstrant mollitudinem." -- Aul. Gel.

13.  " ____________ Medio de fonte leporum,
        Surgit amari aliquid quod in ipsis floribus angat." -- Luc.

14.  Alluding to the conduct and death of Solano, the governor of Cadiz, in May 1809.

15.  Palafox's answer to the French general at the siege of Saragoa.

16.  Part of the Acropolis was destroyed by the explosion of a magazine during the Venetian siege.

17.  We can all feel, or imagine, the regret with which the ruins of cities, once the capitals of empires, are beheld; the reflections suggested by such objects are too trite to require recapitulation.  But never did the littleness of man, and the vanity of his very best virtues -- of patriotism to exalt, and of valour to defend his country -- appear more conspicuous than in the record of what Athens was, and the certainty of what she now is.  This theatre of contention between mighty factions, of the struggles of orators, the exaltation and deposition of tyrants, the triumph and punishment of generals, is now become a scene of petty intrigue and perpetual disturbance, between the bickering agents of certain British nobility and gentry.  "The wild foxes, the owls and serpents in the ruins of Babylon," were surely less degrading than such inhabitants.  The Turks have the plea of conquest for their tyranny, and the Greeks have only suffered the fortune of war, incidental to the bravest; but how are the mighty fallen, when two painters contest the privilege of plundering the Parthenon, and triumph in turn, according to the tenor of each succeeding firman!  Sylla could punish, Philip subdue, and Xerxes burn Athens; but it remained for the paltry antiquarian, and his despicable agents, to render her contemptible as himself and his pursuits.  The Parthenon, before its destruction in part by fire during Venetian siege, had been a temple, a church, and a mosque.  In each point of view it is an object of regard: it changed its worshippers, but still it was a place of worship thrice sacred to devotion: its violation a triple sacrifice.  But --
                            "Man, proud man,
  Dress'd in a little brief authority,
  Plays such fantastic tricks before high Heaven
  As make the angels weep."

18.  It was not always the custom of the Greeks to burn their dead; the greater Ajax, in particular, was interred entire.  Almost all the chiefs became gods after their decease; and he was indeed neglected, who had not annual games near his tomb, or festivals in honour of his memory by his countrymen, as Achilles, Brasidus, &c., and at last even Antinous, whose death was as heroic as his life was infamous.

19.  The temple of Jupiter Olympus, of which sixteen columns, entirely of marble, yet survive: originally there were one hundred and fifty.  These columns, however, are by many supposed to have belonged to the Pantheon.

20.  According to Zosimus, Minerva and Achilles frightened Alaric from the Acropolis; but others relate that the Gothic king was nearly as mischievous as the Scottish peer. -- See Chandler.

21.  To prevent blocks or splinters from falling on deck during action.

22.  Goza is said to have been the island of Calypso.

23.  Ithaca.

24.  Leucadia, now Santa Maura.  From the promontory (the Lover's Leap,) Sappho is said to have thrown herself.

25.  Actium and Trafalgar need no further mention.  The battle of Lepanto, equally bloody and considerable, but less known, was fought in the Gulf of Patras.  Here the author of Don Quixote lost his left hand.

26.  It is said that, on the day previous to the battle of Actium, Anthony had thirteen kings at his levee.

27.  Nicopolis, whose ruins are most extensive, is at some distance from Actium, where the wall of the Hippodrome survives in a few fragments.  These ruins are larger masses of brickwork, the bricks of which are joined by interstices of mortar, as large as the bricks themselves, and equally durable.

28.  According to Pouqueville, the lake of Yanina: but Pouqueville is always out.

29.  The celebrated Ali Pacha.  Of this extraordinary man there is an incorrect account in Pouqueville's Travels.

30.  Five thousand Suliotes, among the rocks and in the castle of Suli, withstood thirty thousand Albanians for eighteen years; the castle at last was taken by bribery.  In this contest there were several acts performed not unworthy of the better days of Greece.

31.  The convent and village of Zitza are four hours' journey from Joannina, or Yanina, the capital of the pachalic.  In the valley the river Kalamas (once the Acheron) flows, and not far from Zitza, forms a fine cataract.  The situation is perhaps the finest in Greece, though the approach to Delvinachi and parts of Acarnania and Ætolia may contest the palm.  Delphi, Parnassus, and, in Attica, even Cape Colonna and Port Raphti, are very inferior; as also every scene in Ionia or the Troad: I am almost inclined to add the approach to Constantinople; but, from the different features of the last, a comparison can hardly be made.

32.  The Greek monks are so called.

33.  The Chimariot mountains appear to have been volcanic.

34.  Now called Kalmas.

35.  Albanese cloak.

36.  Anciently Mount Tomarus.

37 .  The river Laos was full at the time the author passed it; and, immediately above Tepaleen, was to the eye as wide as the Thames at Westminster; at least in the opinion of the author and his fellow-traveller.  In the summer it must be much narrower.  It certainly is the finest river in the Levant; neither Achelous, Alpheus, Acheron, Scamander, nor Cayster, approached it in breadth or beauty.

38.  Alluding to the wreckers of Cornwall.

39.  The Albanian Mussulmans do not abstain from wine, and, indeed, very few of the others.

40.  "Palikar," a general name for a soldier amongst the Greeks and Albanese who speak Romaic: it means, properly, "a lad."

41.  Drummer.

42.  These stanzas are partly taken from different Albanese songs, as far as I was able to make them out by the exposition of the Albanese in Romaic and Italian.

43.  It was taken by storm from the French.

44.  Yellow is the epithet given to the Russians.

45.  "Selictar," swordbearer.

46.  Phyle, which commands a beautiful view of Athens, has still considerable remains.  It was seized by Thrasybulus, previous to the expulsion of the Thirty.

47.  When taken by the Latins, and retained for several years.

48.  Mecca and Medina were taken some time ago by the Wahabees, a sect yearly increasing.

49.  On many of the mountains, particularly Liakura, the snow never is entirely melted, notwithstanding the intense heat of the summer; but I never saw it lie on the plains, even in winter.

50.  Of Mount Pentelicus, from whence the marble was dug that constructed the public edifices of Athens.  The modern name is Mount Mendell.  An immense cave, formed by the quarries, still remains, and will till the end of time.

51.  In all Attica, if we except Athens itself and Marathon, there is no scene more interesting than Cape Colonna.  To the antiquary and artist, sixteen columns are an inexhaustible source of observation and design; to the philosopher, the supposed scene of some of Plato's conversations will not be unwelcome; and the traveller will be struck with the beauty of the prospect over "isles that crown the Ægean deep:" but, for an Englishman, Colonna has yet an additional interest, as the actual spot of Falconer's "Shipwreck."  Pallas and Plato are forgotten, in the recollection of Falconer and Campbell: --
    "Here in the dead of night by Lonna's steep,
    The seaman's cry was heard along the deep."
This temple of Minerva may be seen at sea from a great distance.  In two journeys which I made, and one voyage to Cape Colonna, the view from either side, by land, was more striking than the approach from the isles.  In our second land excursion, we had a narrow escape from a party of Mainotes, concealed in the caverns beneath.  We were told afterwards, by one of their prisoners, subsequently ransomed, that they were deterred from attacking us by the appearance of my two Albanians: conjecturing, very sagaciously, but falsely, that we had a complete guard of these Arnaouts at hand, they remained stationary, and thus saved our party, which was too small to have opposed any effectual resistance.  Colonna is no less a resort of painters than of pirates; there
    "The hireling artist plants his paltry desk
    And makes degraded nature picturesque."
                                          (See Hodgson's /Lady Jane Grey,/ &c.)
But there Nature, with the aid of Art, has done that for herself.  I was fortunate enough to engage a very superior German artist; and hope to renew my acquaintance with this and many other Levantine scenes, by the arrival of his performances.

52.  "Siste Viator -- heroa calcas!" was the epitaph on the famous Count Merci; -- what, then, must be our feelings when standing on the tumulus of the two hundred (Greeks) who fell on Marathon?  The principal barrow has recently been opened by Fauvel: few or no relics, as vases, &c., were found by the excavator.  The plain of Marathon was offered to me for sale at the sum of sixteen thousand piastres, about nine hundred pounds!  Alas! -- "Expende -- quot /libras/ in duce summo -- invenies!" -- was the dust of Miltiades worth no more?  It could scarcely have fetched less if sold by /weight./

53.  "In pride of place" is a term of falconry, and means the highest pitch of flight.  See "Macbeth," &c.
    "An eagle towering in his pride of place," &c.

54.  See the famous song on Harmodius and Aristogiton.  The best English translation is in "Bland's Anthology," by Mr (now Lord Chief-Justice) De[n?]man: --
       "With myrtle my sword will I wreathe," &c.

55.  On the night previous to the action, it is said that ball was given at Brussels.

56.  Sir Evan Cameron, and his descendant Donald, the "gentle Lochiel" of the "forty-five."

57.  The wood of Soignies is supposed to be a remnant of the forest of Ardennes, famous in Boiardo's "Orlando," and immortal in Shakspeare's "As you like it."  It is also celebrated in Tacitus, as being the spot of successful defence by the Germans against the Roman encroachments.  I have ventured to adopt the name connected with nobler associations than those of mere slaughter.

58.  My guide from Mont St Jean over the field seemed intelligent and accurate.  The place where Major Howard fell was not far from two tall and solitary trees (there was a third, cut down, or shivered in the battle,) which stand a few yards from each other at a pathway's side.  Beneath these he died and was buried.  The body has since been removed to England.  A small hollow for the present marks where it lay, but will probably soon be effaced; the plough has been upon it, and the grain is.  After pointing out the different spots where Picton and other gallant men had perished, the guide said, "Here Major Howard lay: I was near him when wounded."  I told him my relationship, and he seemed then still more anxious to point out the particular spot and circumstances.  The place is one of the most marked in the field, from the peculiarity of the two trees above mentioned.  I went on horseback twice over the field, comparing it with my recollection of similar scenes.  As a plain, Waterloo seems marked out for the scene of some great action, though this may be mere imagination.  I have viewed with attention those of Platea, Troy, Mantinea, Leuctra, Chærones, and Marathon, and the field around Mont St Jean and Hougoumont appears to want little but a better cause, and that undefinable but impressive halo which the lapse of ages throws around a celebrated spot, to vie in interest with any or all of these, except, perhaps, the last mentioned.

59.  The (fabled) apples on the brink of the lake Asphaltes were said to be fair without, and, within, ashes.  /Vide/ Tacitus, Histor. lib. v. 7.

60.  The great error of Napoleon, "if we have writ our annals true," was a continued obtrusion on mankind of his want of all community of feeling for or with them; perhaps more offensive to human vanity than the active cruelty of more trembling and suspicious tyranny.  Such were his speeches to public assemblies as well as individuals; and the single expression which he is said to have used on returning to Paris after the Russian winter had destroyed his army, rubbing his hands over a fire, "This is pleasanter than Moscow," would probably alienate more favour from his cause than the destruction and reverses which led to the remark.

61.  "What wants that knave that king should have?" was King James's question on meeting Johnny Armstrong and his followers in full accoutrements. -- See the Ballad.

62.  The castle of Drachenfels stands on the highest summit of "The Seven Mountains," over the Rhine banks; it is in ruins, and connected with some singular traditions.  It is the first in view on the road from Bonn, but on the opposite side of the river.  On this bank, nearly facing it, are the remains of another, called the Jew's Castle, and a large cross commemorative of the murder of a chief by his brother.  The number of castles and cities along the course of the Rhine on both sides is very great, and their situations remarkably beautiful.

63.  The monument of the young and lamented General Marceau (killed by a rifle-ball at Alterkirchen, on the last day of the fourth year of the French republic) still remains as described.  The inscriptions on his monument are rather too long, and not required -- his name was enough.  France adored, and her enemies admired; both wept over him.  His funeral was attended by the generals and detachments from both armies.  In the same grave General Hoche is interred, a gallant man also in every sense of the word; but though he distinguished himself greatly battle, /he/ had not the good fortune to die there: his death was attended by suspicions of poison.  A separate monument (not over his body, which is buried near Marceau's) is raised for him near Andernach, opposite to which one of his most memorable exploits was performed, in throwing a bridge to an island on the Rhine.  The shape and style are different from that of Marceau, and the inscription more simple and pleasing: -- "The Army of the Sambre and Meuse to its Commander-in-Chief, Hoche."  This is all, and as it should be.  Hoche was esteemed among the first of France's earlier generals, before Buonaparte monopolised her triumphs.  He was the destined commander of the invading army of Ireland.

64.  Ehrenbreitstein, /i.e.,/ "the broad stone of honour," one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, was dismantled and blown up by the French at the truce of Leoben.  It had been, and could only be, reduced by famine or treachery.  It yielded to the former, aided by surprise.  After having seen the fortifications of Gibraltar and Malta, it did not much strike by comparison; but the situation is commanding.  General Marceau besieged it in vain for some time, and I slept in a room where I was shewn a window at which he is said to have been standing observing the progress of the siege by moonlight when a ball struck immediately below it.

65.  The chapel is destroyed, and the pyramid of bones diminished to a small number by the Burgundian legion in the service of France, who anxiously effaced this record of their ancestors' less successful invasions.  A few still remain, notwithstanding the pains taken by the Burgundians for ages (all who passed that way removing a bone to their own country,) and the less justifiable larcenies of the Swiss postilions, who carried them off to sell for knife-handles -- a purpose for which the whiteness imbibed by the bleaching of years had rendered them in great request.

Of these relics I ventured to bring away as much as may have made a quarter of a hero, for which the sole excuse is, that if I had not, the next passer-by might have perverted them to worse uses than the careful preservation which I intend for them.

66.  Aventicum, near Morat, was the Roman capital of Helvetia, where Avenches now stands.

67.  Julia Alpinula, a young Aventian priestess, died soon after a vain endeavour to save her father, condemned to death as a traitor by Aulus Cæcina.  Her epitaph was discovered many years ago.  It is thus: -- "Julia Alpinula: Hic jaceo.  Infelis patris infelix proles.  Deæ Aventiæ Sacerdos.  Exorare patris necem non potui: Male mori in fatis ille erat.  Vixi annos XXIII." -- I know of no human composition so affecting as this, nor a history of deeper interest.  These are the names and actions which ought not to perish, and to which we turn with a true and healthy tenderness, from the wretched and glittering detail of a confused mass of conquests and battles, with which the mind is roused for a time to a false and feverish sympathy, from whence it recurs at length with all the nausea consequent on such intoxication.

68.  This is written in the eye of Mont Blanc (June 3d, 1816,) which even at this distance dazzles mine. -- (July 20th.)  I this day observed for some time the distinct reflection of Mont Blanc and Mont Argentière in the calm of the lake, which I was crossing in my boat.  The distance of these mountains from their mirror is sixty miles.

69.  The following touching stanza forms part of the beautiful lines which about this time the poet addressed to his sister: --

    "I did remind thee of our own dear lake,
    By the old hall which may be mine no more.
    Leman's is fair; but think not I forsake
    The sweet remembrance of a dearer shore:
    Sad havoc Time must with my memory make
    Ere /that/ or /thou/ can fade these eyes before;
    Though, like all things which I have loved, they are
    Resign'd for ever, or divided far."

70.  The colour of the Rhone at Geneva is blue, to a depth of the tint which I have never seen equalled in water, salt or fresh, except in the Mediterranean and Archipelago.

71.  This refers to the account in his "Confessions" of his passion for the Comtesse d'Houdetot (the mistress of St Lambert,) and his long walk every morning, for the sake of the single kiss which was the common salutation of French acquaintance.  Rousseau's description of his feelings on this occasion may be considered as the most passionate, yet not impure, description and expression of love that ever kindled into words; which, after all, must be felt, from their very force, to be inadequate to the delineation.  A painting can give no sufficient idea of the ocean.

72.  It is to be recollected, that the most beautiful and impressive doctrines of the Divine Founder of Christianity were delivered, not in the /Temple,/ but on the /Mount./  To waive the question of devotion, and turn to human eloquence, -- the most effectual and splendid specimens were not pronounced within walls.  Demosthenes addressed the public and popular assemblies.  Cicero spoke in the forum.  That this added to their effect on the mind of both orator and hearers, may be conceived from the difference between what we read of the emotions then and there produced, and those we ourselves experience in the perusal in the closet.  It is one thing to read the "Iliad" at Sigæum and on the tumuli, or by the springs, with Mount Ida above, and the plain, and rivers, and Archipelago around you; and another to trim your taper over it in a snug library -- /this/ I know.  Were the early and rapid progress of what is called Methodism to be attributed to any cause beyond the enthusiasm excited by its vehement faith and doctrines (the truth or error of which I presume neither to canvass nor to question,) I should venture to ascribe it to the practise of preaching in the /fields,/ and the unstudied and extemporaneous effusions of its teachers.  The Mussulmans, whose erroneous devotion (at least in the lower orders) is most sincere, and therefore impressive, are accustomed to repeat their prescribed orisons and prayers, wherever they may be, and the stated hours -- of course, frequently in the open air, kneeling upon a light mat (which they carry for the purpose of a bed or cushion as required.)  The ceremony lasts some minutes, during which they are totally absorbed, and only living in their supplication: nothing can disturb them.  On me the simple and entire sincerity of these men, and the spirit which appeared to be within and upon them, made a far greater impression than any general rite which was ever performed in places of worship, of which I have seen those of almost every persuasion under the sun -- including most of our own sectaries, and the Greek, the Catholic, the Armenian, the Lutheran, the Jewish, and the Mohammedan.  Many of the negroes, of whom there are numbers in the Turkish empire, are idolators, and have free exercise of their belief and its rites.  Some of these I had a distant view of at Patras; and, from what I could make out of them, they appeared to be of a truly pagan description, and not very agreeable to a spectator.

73.  The thunder-storm to which these lines refer occurred on the 13th of June, 1816, at midnight.  I have seen, among the Acroceraunian mountains of Chimari, several more terrible, but none more beautiful.

74.  Voltaire and Gibbon.

75.                                          -- "If it be thus,
For Banquo's issue have I filed my mind."  -- /Macbeth./

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage


Poetry: Lord Byron - Childe Harold's Pilgrimage - Part 4 - Canto IV - Links to more Byron

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