martes, 22 de octubre de 2013

Botany - Botanica: Vernonia - Part 1 - Data - Links


Vaccinium pallidum Aiton 


Vaccinium pallidum Aiton

 
Vernonia adoensis

 
Vernonia adoensis

 
Vernonia adoensis

 
Vernonia adoensis

Vernonia is a genus of about 1000 species of forbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Some species are known as Ironweed. Some species are edible and of economic value. They are known for having intense purple flowers. The genus is named for English botanist William Vernon. There are numerous distinct subgenera and subsections in this genus. This has led some botanists to divide this large genus into smaller groups which separate the species into distinct genera. For instance, the Flora of North America only recognizes about 20 species, 17 of which are in North America north of Mexico, with the other two or three being found in South America.[1]

Uses

Several species of Vernonia, including V. calvoana, V. amygdalina, and V. colorata, are eaten as leaf vegetables. Common names for these species include bitterleaf, ewuro, ndole and onugbu. They are common in most West African and Central African countries. They are one of the most widely consumed leaf vegetables of Cameroon, where they are a key ingredient of Ndolé. The leaves have a sweet and bitter taste. They are sold fresh or dried, and are a typical ingredient in egusi soup.

V. amygdalina is well known as a medicinal plant with several uses attributed to it, including for diabetes, fever reduction, and recently a non-pharmaceutical solution to persistent fever, headache, and joint pain associated with AIDS (an infusion of the plant is taken as needed).[2][3] These leaves are exported from several African countries and can be purchased in grocery stores aiming to serve African clients for about $1.50/225gm pkg. frozen. The roots of V. amygdalina have been used for gingivitis and toothache due to its proven antimicrobial activity.[4]

In North America, the 17 species of Vernonia (e.g. V. altissima, V. fasciculata, V. flaccidifolia) all have the same effective properties as a blood purifier and uterus toner,[5] containing sesquiterpene lactone, which helps also to prevent atherosclerosis.

V. galamensis is used as an oilseed in East Africa. It is grown in many parts of Ethiopia, especially around the city of Harar, with an average seed yield of 2 to 2.5 t/ha. It is reported that the Ethiopian strains of Vernonia have the highest oil content, up to 41.9% with up to 80% vernolic acid, and is used in paint formulations, coatings plasticizers, and as a reagent for many industrial chemicals.[6]

Vernonia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora vernoniaeella (which feeds exclusively on the genus) and Schinia regia (which feeds exclusively on V. texana).

Species

Species of this genus are found in South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and North America. Vernonia species are well known for hybridizing between similar species in areas of overlapping ranges. There are approximately 1000 species of Vernonia. A partial species list is given below.

North America

    Vernonia acaulis
    Vernonia arkansana
    Vernonia angustifolia
    Vernonia baldwinii
    Vernonia blodgettii
    Vernonia fasciculata
    Vernonia flaccidifolia
    Vernonia gigantea or Vernonia altissima[7]
    Vernonia glauca
    Vernonia larseniae
    Vernonia lettermannii
    Vernonia lindheimeri
    Vernonia marginata
    Vernonia missurica
    Vernonia noveboracensis
    Vernonia proctorii
    Vernonia pulchella
    Vernonia texana

South America

    Vernonia nonoensis
    Vernonia patens
    Vernonia scorpioides

Africa

    Vernonia amygdalina
    Vernonia bamendae
    Vernonia calvoana
    Vernonia colorata
    Vernonia galamensis
    Vernonia staehelinoides

Asia

    Vernonia cinerea
    Vernonia cockburniana
    Vernonia elaeagnifolia
    Vernonia unicata
    Vernonia zollingerianoides

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernonia


En español:
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernonia
 
Vernonia adoensis

 
Vernonia baldwinii

 
Vernonia calvoana - bitterleaf

Bitterleaf (Vernonia calvoana)

Vernonia is a genus of about 1000 species of forbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Some species are known as Ironweed. Some species are edible and of economic value. They are known for having intense purple flowers. The genus is named for English botanist William Vernon. There are numerous distinct subgenera and subsections in this genus. This has led some botanists to divide this large genus into smaller groups which separate the species into distinct genera. For instance, the Flora of North America only recognizes about 20 species, 17 of which are in North America or n. Mexico, with the other two or three being found in South America.

Several species of Vernonia, including V. calvoana, V. amygdalina, and V. colorata, are eaten as leaf vegetables. Common names for these species include bitterleaf,ewuro, ndole and onugbu. They are common in most West African and Central African countries. They are one of the most widely consumed leaf vegetables of Cameroon, where they are a key ingredient of  Ndolé. The leaves have a sweet and bitter taste. They are sold fresh or dried, and are a typical ingredient in egusi soup.

V. amygdalina is well known as a medicinal plant with several uses attributed to it, including for diabetes, fever reduction, and recently a non-pharmaceutical solution to persistent fever, headache, and joint pain associated with AIDS (an infusion of the plant is taken as needed). These leaves are exported from several African countries and can be purchased in grocery stores aiming to serve African clients for about $1.50/225gm pkg. frozen. The roots of V. amygdalina have been used for gingivitis and toothache due to its proven antimicrobial activity.

In North America, of the 17 species of Vernonia (eg., V. altissima, V. fasciculata, V. flaccidifolia) all have the same effective properties as a blood purifier and uterus toner, containing sesquiterpene lactone, which helps also to prevent atherosclerosis.

V. galamensis is used as an oilseed in East Africa. It is grown in many parts of Ethiopia, especially around the city of Harar, with an average seed yield of 2 to 2.5 t/ha. It is reported that the Ethiopian strains of Vernonia have the highest oil content, up to 41.9% with up to 80% vernolic acid, and is used in paint formulations, coatings plasticizers, and as a reagent for many industrial chemicals.

http://challengesforfilipinos.wordpress.com/category/fun-learning/home-gardens/my-culinary-garden/salad-green-leafy-vegetables/
 
Vernonia cinerea

 
Vernonia cinerea

 
Vernonia cinerea

 
Vernonia cinerea (Ash Fleabane) in Talakona forest



Links
Especies – Species

Ginkgo Biloba
Orchard - Zapallo
Vaccinium
Vainilla – Vanilla
Valeriana
Vancouveria
Vanda
Veltheimia
Venegasia carpesioides
Verbascum
Verbena
Verbesina
Verónica
Vinca
Viola
Vuylstekeara
Wisteria
Zantedeschia
Zinnia
Zygopetalum

Fungus – Hongos
Agaricus
Agrocybe
Botany: Fungus. Hongos. Funji: Agrocybe  
Aleuria Aurantia
Amanita
Armillaria
Boletus
Cantharellus
Chroogomphus
Chrysomphalina
Clavariadelphus
Clavulina
Clitocybe
Clitopilus
Collybia
Coltricia
Conocybe
Coprinus
Cortinarius
Craterellus
Crepidotus
Crucibulum
Fomitopsis
Morchella
Suillus
Tricholona
Various - Varios
Various - Varios




Botany - Botanica: Vernonia - Part 1 - Data - Links





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